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The rise in coronavirus cases across the country has led to a rise in companies making face masks, as government officials continue to promote the wearing of face coverings as an effective way to prevent the spread of Covid-19. While there are a number of different options available, from lightweight face masks for running to more stylish picks, a new report says the most effective face masks are a protective N95 mask.
Also sometimes referred to as N95 respirators, these masks are not to be confused with KN95 masks, which have a similar name, but are held to entirely different standards. Here’s what you need to know.
N95 Masks vs. KN95 Masks: Similarities and Differences
Both N95 masks and KN95 masks are made from multiple layers of synthetic material (typically a polypropylene plastic polymer) and are designed to be worn over the mouth and nose. Straps behind your ear help to hold the mask in place. Both masks must filter out and capture 95 percent of tiny 0.3 micron particles in the air (hence the “95” in the names).
“N95 masks offer protection against particles as small as 0.3 microns in size, and while the coronavirus itself is around 0.1 microns in size, it’s usually attached to something larger, such as droplets that are generated by everyday activities like breathing and talking,” explains Shaz Amin, founder of Honest PPE Supply, which sells masks, face shields, wipes and sanitizers on its website. “Due to the multiple layers of non-woven fabric and melt blown fabric in the N95 masks, the strong material makeup of these masks are great at preventing airborne particles from entering through your mouth and nose.”
But how are N95 masks different from KN95 masks? The main difference lies in how the masks are certified. “In general,” says Sean Kelly, founder of New Jersey-based PPE of America, “N95 is the U.S. standard, and the KN95 is the China standard.” Because of this, only N95 masks are approved for health-care use in the United States, even though KN95 masks have many of the same protective properties.
N95 masks must pass a rigorous inspection and certification process from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which is part of the CDC. Companies making KN95 masks, meanwhile, can seek approval from the FDA, through an emergency authorization for a foreign certification which meets the 95 percent filtration requirement. The FDA says the manufacturer of KN95 masks must also provide documentation that the masks and materials used are authentic.
According to Kelly, whose company was among those tapped by Connecticut lawmakers to provide personal protective equipment to frontline workers in the state, certification of KN95 masks include a requirement on “fit testing,” which tests the air inside and outside of the mask, as well as how the mask fits around your face. The N95 masks do not have these requirements to meet their standard. Still, he says, “N95 mask requirements are a bit more stringent regarding the pressure drop in the mask during breathing in, which makes the N95 more breathable than most KN95 masks. The N95 masks have similar requirements for exhaling. These requirements,” Kelly says, “make the N95 mask a bit more advanced with the overall breathability for users.”
Keep in mind, the certifications mentioned above only refer to the country in which the standards and regulations were created, not where the masks are made. Most N95 masks are still made in China. Similarly, the CDC has authorized the use of KN95 masks as a suitable alternative to N95 masks for its response to Covid-19.
“The KN95 is practically equivalent to N95 in every aspect,” says Amin. “Customers seem to believe that the N95 is superior at blocking airborne particles, but the KN95 is just as good, if not better,” he insists. “Many N95 [masks] are also made in parts of China and Asia so the notion that all N95 are U.S.-created is inaccurate as well.”
What Does an N95 Mask Protect Against?
According to a report cited by National Center for Biotechnology Information, part of the United States National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health, N95 respirators have two main advantages over simple cloth coverings or surgical masks. First, the report found that N95 masks are more than 95 percent efficient at filtering 0.3-μm particles — particles that are even smaller than the droplets created when talking, coughing, or sneezing — making them an effective way to filter out germs and bacteria. The study also found that N95 masks often fit better over the face and around the neck, ensuring that droplets and particles do not leak around the mask. “Even if N95 filtration is unnecessary,” the report states, “N95 fit offers advantages over a loose-fitting surgical mask by eliminating leakage around the mask.”
The main reason for the N95 mask’s popularity is efficacy, Kelly says. “We know they work and have been used for decades in both health-care and industrial environments,” he says, citing their use in everything from hospitals to labs to construction sites. “When a firefighter risks their life to go into a burning building, they go into that building wearing all the lifesaving gear,” Kelly continues. “They do this to not only protect their own life so they could save others, but to also go home to their family and keep doing what they are dedicated to do. Frontline health-care workers and those who have close contact with others are no different than firefighters when it comes to taking all necessary means to protect themselves from contracting Covid-19. The first and foremost safety precaution for a health-care worker to take is to wear a NIOSH-approved N95 face mask.”
Note: the FDA says N95 masks are not designed to be used by children or people with significant facial hair. One of the main benefits of an N95 mask is its ability to secure a tight seal around the face; the FDA says a child’s face or a face with a beard will not allow the mask to offer the same protection.
Another thing to remember: “They are not a magic bullet,” cautions Mia Sultan, CEO of the independent preventative-care company N95 Mask Co. “While [N95 masks] offer increased protection, they are not a replacement for social distancing, hand hygiene, and limiting person-to-person interactions whenever possible.”
Are N95 Masks Reusable?
N95 masks are not meant to be reused. “To my shock and dismay, some people tell me they wear the same mask for days or even a week without changing,” Kelly says. “That is not only stupid, but extremely dangerous, especially if their mask was not decontaminated by one of the newer decontamination machines.”
Unlike cloth face coverings, which can be machine-washed and worn dozens of times, the best N95 masks are only effective when worn once or twice. You should discard the masks immediately afterward; they are not meant to be washed and reused.
Per FDA guidelines, discard your N95 respirator by placing it in a plastic bag and put it immediately in the trash. Wash your hands after handling the used respirator.
Are KN95 Masks Reusable?
KN95 masks, meantime, are meant for one-time use as well, though Amin cites a recent Caltech study that found that some KN95 masks could be effectively used. Researchers from Caltech used Honest PPE Supply-branded KN95 masks, Amin says, and they “passed with flying colors in terms of filtration efficiency.”
“What was more interesting,” he adds, “is that they said when they reused the mask after spraying it with ethanol, air drying it and then vacuum drying it, it showed effective filtration after that as well.”
Fake N95 Masks vs. Real N95 Masks
There are some precautionary steps you can take to determine if the masks you are buying are counterfeit. Kelly suggests six things to look out for, which may suggest a “fake” or uncertified N95 mask:
- The NIOSH approval stamp is either missing or spelled wrong on the face of the mask.
- The mask has ear loops instead of headbands (headbands are used for a tighter fit).
- The TC approval number is not listed on the face of the mask or headband.
- The company claims approval for use by children.
- There is a presence of decorative add-ons.
- The manufacturing lot number is not visible on the face of the mask.
The CDC’s website has more tips on how to spot counterfeit N95 respirators here.
Amin says to do your research and make sure you’re ordering your masks from a legitimate site. “I highly recommend all customers do their diligence on where they buy their KN95 masks from,” he says. “Ask for the lab results which show the filtration levels, research the factory they’re buying the masks from, ask for videos of the water test where you pour water into the mask and look for droplets passing through the other side, stress test the ear loop bands and make sure that all the data they have given you adds up. If the company that you buy your KN95 masks from keeps changing their manufacturers repeatedly,” he adds, “that’s a red flag that they are just flipping masks from multiple middlemen or brokers and don’t have proper quality control.”
Where to Buy N95 Masks Online
A number of companies have made both N95 masks and KN95 masks available online. The aptly named N95 Mask Co. has both types of masks available for the public to purchase. The company says its Respokare NIOSH N95 Respirator Masks use “advanced antiviral technology” to block up to 95 percent of small particles, while helping to “inactivate up to 99.9 percent of particles within minutes,” neutralizing germs and viruses on the surface to prevent potential exposure into your airstream and lungs. The masks are comfortable to wear and can be adjusted to fit snug against your face, per FDA recommendations.
San Diego-based Clinical Supplies USA also has N95 masks available, including those made by 3M. A ten-pack of 3M Aura N95 Masks from Clinical Supplies costs $149.95. In addition to making these masks available to the public, the company says it has donated $150,000 worth of PPE to those in need, including 28,000 masks to the homeless and students who have been “disproportionately affected by the current global health crisis.“
Where to Buy KN95 Masks Online
A handful of companies have also pivoted their offerings to include KN95 masks. Among them: personal-care and accessories brand Public Goods. The site says its KN95 respirator masks are made from five layers of filters, and use a mechanical filter to block up to 95 percent of harmful particles in the air from your nose and mouth. A nose clip helps to form a tight seal around your face.
KN95 masks from Clinical Supplies USA, meanwhile, start at $42.95 for a 10 pack. The company says its masks have been whitelisted by the FDA, and feature five layers of protection, including a surface layer that actively blocks air pollution, and a PM2.5 particle layer that blocks the entrance of PM2.5 particles — particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (which is smaller than the diameter of a single strand of human hair).
Can the Public Buy N95 Masks?
Companies like N95 Mask Co. are making N95 masks available to the public, but the lingering question remains: With stories of hospitals and frontline workers needing masks, will selling them to the public deplete stock for those who require it most?
Amin says Honest PPE Supply continues to prioritize those who need the masks first. “Giving back is an essential part in everything that I do and core to how I was raised,” he says. “Every single week we make donations to non-profits, businesses, religious organizations and people in need because it’s our duty to help where we can. We’ve collectively donated almost 100,000 PPE products to multiple organizations around the U.S., and we plan to keep going.” Still, he says his company’s ability to secure large quantities of masks has made it easier for him to sell them for just $2.95 per mask, when other companies have been — in his words — “price gouging.”
Sultan says earlier logistical problems that clogged production times for making masks have now cleared up, and health-care workers have been able to receive the masks they need. “As supply chains have normalized and institutions no longer face the shortages seen early in the pandemic, we believe it makes sense to expand the percentage of the general population who are able to protect themselves at a higher level in an effort to further slow the spread of Covid-19,” she says, adding that the company has donated thousands of masks out of pocket to hospitals across the country.
Kelly, from PPE America, agrees that it’s a “top priority” for the federal government to “replenish stockpiles for military, FEMA, and state and local governments who then may distribute those supplies to local health-care systems.” Still, he says, there has been a rise in companies manufacturing N95 masks in large quantities, effectively ensuring that those who need — and want — the masks will be able to receive them. “There’s no doubt that health-care workers should be the number-one priority for N95 mask deliveries,” Kelly says. “[But] things are improving, and I don’t believe there’s a need for this drastic action since there’s plenty of N95 product available now or will be [available] in the coming months.”
As for those who question whether sites should be selling N95 masks for profit, Kelly insists it’s no different from what health-care and “big pharma” companies have been doing for years. “Are these companies not in business to generate a profit for their shareholders?” he asks. “Since inception, PPE of America was not established to be a not-for-profit company, and we have every right to generate a profit. If we did not, we could not be in business doing what we do best — assisting those who are procuring quality PPE products at fair market prices.”
“Everyday we do our part to help fight Covid-19 by supplying access to PPE products to those who need them the most,” Kelly says, citing a recent donation of “tens of thousands” of surgical masks to hospitals and medical organizations. “As we continue to grow and expand our services, we will continue to do our best to be there for those who need our assistance during these stressful times.”