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The RS Politics 2020 Democratic Primary Policy Guide

Where nearly two dozen candidates stand on health care, the climate crisis, closing the wealth gap, and more

Former Vice President Joe Biden, Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren, and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.

Matthew Putney/AP/Shutterstock; Paul Sancya/AP/Shutterstock; Ronen Tivony/SOPA Images/Shutterstock

The collection of Democrats vying to win the party’s nomination to take on President Trump in 2020 is larger and more diverse than any group of White House hopefuls since the modern primary process began. The field of two dozen candidates includes seven senators, three members of the House of Representatives, three mayors, two governors, a handful of former lawmakers, a former vice president, a former tech executive, a self-help guru, six women, six people of color, and a 37-year-old trying to become America’s first LGBTQ president.

Just as diverse are the candidates’ prescriptions for how to cure the United States of its worsening case of Trumpism. The more progressive wing of the party, led by Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders, is calling for a single-payer health care system while pushing for higher taxes on the wealthiest Americans. Moderate Democrats, led by current frontrunner Joe Biden, prefer a more tempered stance focused on formulating bipartisan solutions they argue are more practical. Others, like former tech executive Andrew Yang, who has called for a “Freedom Dividend” that would give every American $1,000 per month, and self-help guru Marianne Williamson, who wants to establish a Department of Peace, are hoping Democratic voters are willing to embrace a more outside-the-box approach.

Below is a guide to where nearly two dozen declared candidates stand on a variety of crucial issues. Scroll through at your convenience or click a candidate’s name to jump directly to their policy positions. For a look at where the candidates stand in the marathon horse race to secure the party’s nomination, check out the RS Politics 2020 Democratic Primary Leaderboard. Both guides will be updated as the primary progresses and candidates continue to develop policy positions.


JOE BIDEN | ELIZABETH WARREN | KAMALA HARRIS | BERNIE SANDERS |  PETE BUTTIGIEG | CORY BOOKER | JULIÁN CASTROAMY KLOBUCHAR | BETO O’ROURKEJAY INSLEETULSI GABBARD | KIRSTEN GILLIBRAND | ANDREW YANG | BILL DE BLASIO | MARIANNE WILLIAMSONSTEVE BULLOCK | JOHN DELANEY | MICHAEL BENNETJOHN HICKENLOOPER  | TIM RYANSETH MOULTON | WAYNE MESSAM

Democratic presidential candidate, former Vice President Joe Biden during a campaign rally at Eakins Oval in PhiladelphiaElection 2020 Joe Biden, Philadelphia, USA - 18 May 2019

Joe Biden


Medicare-for-All

Biden does not support Medicare-for-All, instead favoring an expansion of the Affordable Care Act. In July, he unveiled a health care plan built around subsidizing the “big fucking deal” he helped pass as Obama’s vice president. Biden’s 2020 plan would also offer a Medicare-like public option that Americans would be able to buy into. “I believe we have to protect and build on Obamacare,” Biden said in a video announcing the plan. “That’s why I proposed adding a public option to Obamacare as the best way to lower cost and cover everyone. I understand the appeal of Medicare-for-All, but folks supporting it should be clear that it means getting rid of Obamacare, and I’m not for that.”

Biden’s claim that Medicare-for-All would mean the end of the Obamacare is an odd way to promote his plan. While true that Medicare-for-All would replace and thus end the ACA, no one would lose coverage under a single-payer system.

Closing the Wealth Gap

Biden has pledged to close $1.6 trillion in “tax loopholes.” One staple of his stump speech is pledging to eliminate the stepped-up basis loophole, which allows heirs to pay less in taxes on their inheritance. Biden also wants to crack down on the use of non-compete clauses that make it difficult for workers to change jobs, and has slammed the Trump tax cuts by saying that the vast majority of the benefits go to “folks at the top and corporations.” But he has faced criticism for pointedly refusing to take aim at America’s new oligarchs, a la Warren or Sanders. “I love Bernie, but I’m not Bernie Sanders,” he said earlier this year. “I don’t think 500 billionaires are the reason why we’re in trouble.” At a recent Manhattan fundraiser, he vowed not to “demonize” the wealthy if elected president and told the well-heeled donors in attendance, “I need you very badly.”

The Climate Crisis

Biden, who introduced one of the Senate’s first climate bills in 1986, has endorsed the framework of a Green New Deal and unveiled a $1.7 trillion plan to get to net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. The plan calls for signing climate-focused executive orders on Biden’s first day as president, recommitting to the Paris climate accord, reinforcing the Clean Air Act to combat growing transportation sector emissions, and demanding Congress pass legislation creating an enforcement mechanism to meet emissions targets, among other goals. Biden also wants to use the reach and buying power of the federal government to combat climate change, mandating that federal infrastructure spending help reduce pollution and all federal permitting decisions weigh the effects of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.

Public Education

Biden’s first major policy rollout focused on K-12 education. The centerpiece of that plan is tripling Title I federal spending on schools that serve low-income students from $16 billion to $48 billion. He also wants to increase teacher pay, expand pre-K access for three- and four-year-olds, and invest more in mental health services in public schools. If he’s president, he’ll call on the Department of Education to fund efforts to “diversify” public schools. But school desegregation is a dicey subject for Biden: Before he got in the race, the Washington Post highlighted Biden’s opposition three decades ago to busing as a way to diversify public schools. “I do not buy the concept, popular in the ’60s, which said, ‘We have suppressed the black man for 300 years and the white man is now far ahead in the race for everything our society offers. In order to even the score, we must now give the black man a head start, or even hold the white man back, to even the race,'” he told a Delaware newspaper in 1975. “I don’t buy that.”

Campaign Cash

Biden has disavowed Super PACs and fossil fuel money but not corporate PAC money or dark money nonprofit groups. His campaign has reportedly begun recruiting big-money fundraisers, a.k.a. “bundlers,” who receive nicknames depending on how much money they raise —  $50,000 for a “Protector,” $100,000 for a “Unifier.”

Foreign Policy

After eight years as vice president, Biden has logged more miles as a statesman than any other 2020 candidate. His views are decidedly mainstream and centrist, for good and ill. He has slammed Trump’s “need to coddle autocrats and dictators” and called for more support of NATO and a strong response to Russia’s sustained assault on Western democracy, including in the U.S. Yet he also voted for the Iraq war, and supported President Obama’s escalation of the war in Afghanistan.

In July, he reset his approach to foreign policy for his latest run at the White House. While speaking at the City University of New York, Biden preached the need to restore America’s relationship with the international community to what it was before the current president took office. He promised to rejoin the Paris climate accord and the Iran nuclear deal, cancel Trump’s travel ban on predominantly Muslim nations, resume sending aid to Northern Triangle nations, and more. “Donald Trump’s brand of America First has too often left America alone,” he said. “We only have one opportunity to reset our democracy. After Trump, we have to be prepared to make the most of it.”

Rural America

In July, Biden unveiled a plan aimed at revitalizing rural America. The plan features a bevy of economic initiatives, investment in clean energy solutions, tripling funding to expand rural broadband access, measure to improve access to health care in rural areas, and more. “A healthy, vibrant rural America is essential to the success of our country,” he wrote in introducing the plan. “Yet in small town after small town, parents watch their kids and grandkids leave rural communities because there just is not enough opportunity for them at home. For too many rural Americans, a pathway to the middle class is out of reach if they stay in their rural communities.”

Free College

As vice president, in 2015, Biden called for four years of free public college, going further than Obama’s proposal for free two-year community college. Biden’s campaign website pays lip service to the need for all Americans to “obtain the skills and education to realize their full potential” from pre-K to college, but he has not explicitly endorsed four years of free public college since joining the 2020 primary (only free community college), and has been facing criticism for votes he made as a senator that made it harder for borrowers to discharge student debt through bankruptcy. 

Guns

A longtime gun control advocate, Biden responded to a school shooting in May by listing various policies that could prevent future tragedies. “The idea we don’t have universal background checks,” he told reporters, “the idea that we don’t outlaw a number of the weapons I was able to get outlawed in the crime bill, from large magazines and assault weapons and all that, this is crazy.” In the past, he pushed for a ban on assault weapons and high-capacity magazines as well as implementing universal background checks.

Immigration

As president, Biden’s website says, he would “pursue a humane immigration policy that upholds our values, strengthens our economy, and secures our border.” He recently pledged not to deport veterans who aren’t U.S. citizens. As a senator, he voted in favor of the Secure Fence Act to pay for 700 miles of wall construction on the U.S.-Mexico border. He played a key role in the Obama administration championing the cause of Dreamers, or undocumented residents who were brought to the country when they were young.

Legal Weed

Legalization advocates slammed Biden when he entered the race in April, telling Rolling Stone that he had “an abysmal record when it came to marijuana law reform.” As a senator, he helped lead the charge in the ’80s to ramp up the federal government’s War on Drugs, introducing the Comprehensive Narcotics Control Act of 1986 and calling for the creation of a “drug czar.” He has not made many public statements on the subject in recent years, but in 2014 told Time magazine that he still didn’t support legalization. In July, Biden released a plan for criminal justice reform that calls for the decriminalization of marijuana, for states to be allowed to legalize it as they see fit, and for it to be downgraded to a Schedule II substance at the federal level.

Abolishing the Electoral College

Biden has yet to take a position on abolishing the Electoral College.

Packing the Supreme Court

Biden has yet to take a position on adding justices to the Supreme Court. In 1983, during a hearing on President Reagan’s plans to replace members of a national civil rights commission, Biden said FDR’s court-packing was “totally within his right” but, in his view, was “a bonehead idea” that “put in question, for an entire decade, the independence of the most significant body” in the United States.

Criminal Justice Reform

Since launching his campaign, Biden’s had to answer for his criminal justice stance in the ’80s and ’90s, including support for the 1994 Crime Bill and co-sponsoring the 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, which created mandatory minimum sentences that treated crack cocaine more harshly than cocaine and contributed to the disproportionate incarceration of people of color. “It was a big mistake…” he told a crowd in January. “We thought, we were told by the experts, that crack — you never go back; it was somehow fundamentally different. It’s not different. But it’s trapped an entire generation.”

In July, Biden unveiled a comprehensive plan for criminal justice reform. It calls for abolishing the death penalty, private prisons, cash bail, and mandatory minimum sentences for nonviolent crimes; investing in reforming law enforcement and encouraging the Justice Department to hold police departments accountable for misconduct; a $20 grant program to encourage states to reduce crime and incarceration; and more. “Today, too many people are incarcerated in the United States — and too many of them are black and brown,” Biden wrote. “To build safe and healthy communities, we need to rethink who we’re sending to jail, how we treat those in jail, and how we help them get the health care, education, jobs, and housing they need to successfully rejoin society after they serve their time.”

Reproductive Rights

Biden, a Roman Catholic, has said that he personally opposes abortion but because this conviction is based on his faith, he has no right to impose those views on other people. Accordingly, he said in 2012 that the government doesn’t have a right to tell women what to do with their bodies. And a Biden spokesman told the New York Times in March that Biden supports the landmark Roe v. Wade decision. But as a senator in the early ’80s, Biden voted in favor of an amendment to allow states to overturn Roe, a vote he described then as “the single most difficult vote I’ve cast as a U.S. senator.”

In early June, Biden’s campaign confirmed that he still supported the Hyde Amendment, which bans federal funds from being used for abortions except in cases of rape, incest, and if the life of the mother is at risk. This put him in stark contrast to other Democratic candidates on this issue. Days later, he reversed course and said he no longer supports the measure.

Voting Rights

Biden website includes a call to protect “every American’s vote” — to make it easier for people of all races and classes to vote and protect our elections from foreign interference. On the campaign trail, he’s said that Republicans want to scale back voting rights and make it harder for people of color to exercise their right to vote. “You’ve got Jim Crow sneaking back in,” he said. “You know what happens when you have an equal right to vote? They lose.”

Reparations

Biden has yet to take a position. He dismissed the idea of reparations in a 1975 interview that resurfaced in news reports before he entered the presidential race. “I don’t feel responsible for the sins of my father and grandfather,” Biden told a local newspaper. “I feel responsible for what the situation is today, for the sins of my own generation. And I’ll be damned if I feel responsible to pay for what happened 300 years ago.”

Elizabeth WarrenConversations About America’s Future: Elizabeth Warren, SXSW Festival, Austin, USA - 09 Mar 2019Senator Elizabeth Warren attends the 2019 SXSW conference and Festivals at ACL Live

Elizabeth Warren


Medicare-for-All

Warren has voiced support for the idea of Medicare-for-All, but the candidate who seems to have a plan for everything has been uncharacteristically vague about how she would execute such a massive undertaking. During a CNN town hall in March, she only expressed a desire to “get everybody at the table,” including private insurance companies, whom she envisions playing a “temporary role” in any transition toward a single-payer system.

She changed course a few months later during the first Democratic debates, however, raising her hand in favor of eliminating the private insurance industry. “Look at the business model of an insurance company,” she said. “It’s to bring in as many dollars as they can in premiums and to pay out as few dollars as possible for your health care. That leaves families with rising premiums, rising copays, and fighting with insurance companies to try to get the health care that their doctors say that they and their children need. Medicare-for-All solves that problem.”

Closing the Wealth Gap

Warren has the most aggressive tax-the-rich proposal in the field. Under her “Ultra-Millionaire” wealth tax, households with a net worth of more than $50 million would be taxed 2 percent on every dollar of net worth above $50 million, and a 3 percent on every dollar of net worth above $1 billion. Warren estimates the tax, which would apply to about 75,000 households, would bring in $2.75 trillion in revenue over 10 years.

The Climate Crisis

Warren’s “Green Manufacturing Plan” takes inspiration from both the Apollo program and the Marshall Plan to “develop, manufacture, and export the technology the world needs to confront the existential threat of climate change.” The plan would divide a $2 trillion 10-year investment among three priorities: clean energy research and development ; a massive investment to encourage the manufacture of clean, renewable, and emission-free energy products; and a diplomatic program to encourage other countries to use clean American technology. Warren has also released a plan to ready the military for threats associated with climate change. Under that plan, the Pentagon would have to achieve net zero emissions by 2030 and the Defense Department would invest “billions of dollars into a new, 10-year research and development program … focused on microgrids and advanced energy storage.”

Free College

Arguing that crushing student loan debt is reducing rates of homeownership, discouraging people from starting businesses, and forcing students to drop out before graduating, Warren has declared that she would cancel up to $50,000 in student-loan debt for 42 million Americans, almost completely wiping out educational debt for three-quarters of the country’s borrowers. To prevent future generations from becoming similarly buried in student debt, Warren has proposed offering every American the chance to go to a two- or four-year college for free. (The cost, Warren says, will be covered by the tax on her Ultra-Millionaire tax.)

Taking on Big Tech

In March, Warren released a plan to break up Facebook, Google, and Amazon, companies she argues have “too much power over our economy, our society, and our democracy.”

Central to her plan is designating companies with an annual revenue of more than $25 billion and which offers an “online marketplace, an exchange, or a platform for connecting third parties would be designated” as a “Platform Utilities,” which would have to abide by a set of regulations relating to their interactions with users, and would not be able to share data with third parties. She would also appoint regulators to reverse “illegal and anti-competitive” tech mergers — for example, Amazon’s acquisition of Whole Foods. “We must help America’s content creators — from local newspapers and national magazines to comedians and musicians — keep more of the value their content generates, rather than seeing it scooped up by companies like Google and Facebook,” Warren wrote.

Campaign Cash

Warren announced early on in her campaign that she would not court or accept contributions from big-money donors — a decision that ultimately resulted in her finance director quitting the campaign. (He reportedly “strenuously objected” on the grounds that the move would kneecap her candidacy right out of the gate.)

Guns

Warren, who said in 2014 that she “grew up around guns and gun owners” and that she “will work to protect the rights of law-abiding citizens,” has more recently joined other senators in calling for research into the public health consequences of gun violence and for hearings on universal background checks. In January, she co-sponsored an assault weapons ban bill, and in February, she said gun violence would be qualified as a national emergency if she were elected. In June, Warren tweeted that she supports a national gun licensing program that would require Americans to hold a license before purchasing a gun, and that she also wants to ban assault weapons, prevent domestic abusers from obtaining firearms, and closing the gun show loophole.

After the August shootings that left 31 dead in El Paso and Dayton, however, Warren unveiled a wide-ranging plan aimed at reducing gun violence by 80 percent. The plan is essentially three-pronged: Warren would take several executive actions to institute gun control measures like universal background checks, prosecuting gun traffickers, and more; passing anti-corruption legislation that would end the NRA’s “stranglehold on Congress”; and sending Congress comprehensive gun violence prevention legislation that would be revisited and tweaked on an annual basis. “I’ll make sure that the NRA and their cronies are held accountable with executive action,” Warren wrote on Medium. “If we turn our heartbreak and our anger into action, I know we can take the power from the NRA and the lawmakers in their pockets and return it to the people.”

Foreign Policy

Warren certainly has expertise in domestic economic policy, but she’s been beefing up her foreign policy credentials as a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. Last fall, before officially declaring her candidacy, Warren outlined in broad strokes her vision for a progressive foreign policy in an op-ed in Foreign Affairs. Among other goals, Warren emphasized the importance of ensuring trade negotiations are “used to curtail the power of multinational monopolies and crack down on tax havens,” of making “honest assessments of the full costs and risks associated with going to war,” and of committing to “reprioritize diplomacy and reinvest in the State Department and the development agencies.” She also criticized the Defense Department’s bloated budget and called for pulling troops out of Afghanistan and Iraq. In June, she offered an unequivocal “no” when the New York Times asked whether American troops would still be in Afghanistan at the end of her first term in office.

Housing

Warren’s housing plan is built around the American Housing and Economic Mobility Act, which she initially introduced to the Senate in 2018. The bill would set aside $500 billion over the next 10 years to “build, preserve, and rehab units that will be affordable to lower-income families.” The increase in units would in turn drive down rental costs. How would this be paid for, you ask? The same way Warren plans to pay for several of her proposals: by taxing the rich. Currently, an heir doesn’t pay estate taxes until they inherit $22 million or more. Warren would reduce the threshold to $7 million, which she says would fully pay for the plan.

Her plan would also “level the playing field for communities of color”:

Immigration

Warren has said that America needs to come up with immigration policy that “align[s] with our values.” In July, she delivered by unveiling a sweeping plan that includes “remaking” ICE and Customs and Border Protection; allowing more refugees into the United States; ending the abuse of migrants and reducing detention; and decriminalizing border crossings. “We already have the tools to effectively track and monitor individuals without shoving them into cages and camps along the border,” she wrote on Medium. “As President, I’ll issue guidance ensuring that detention is only used where it is actually necessary because an individual poses a flight or safety risk.

Legal Weed

Warren declined to publicly state a position when Massachusetts considered whether to legalize weed in 2016, but now says she voted in favor of the ballot measure and supports nationwide legalization. Warren has cited the racial disparities in marijuana arrests as a big reason to legalize the substance.

In 2018, Warren introduced a bipartisan bill with Sen. Cory Gardner — the The Strengthening the Tenth Amendment Through Entrusting States (STATES) Act — that would free states with legal pot from the threat of federal crackdowns.  

Criminal Justice Reform

“Our criminal justice system is broken — and right at the heart of that problem is race and we have to address this head-on,” Warren said at a CNN town hall earlier this year. Black Americans, she said, are more likely to be arrested, arraigned, taken to trial, wrongfully convicted and given harsher sentences, adding, “that it is a criminal justice system that is not only locking up too many people; it is a criminal justice system that has a problem of race right at the heart of it and we need to call it out for what it is.” Warren has also talked about making sure quality legal representation is available to everyone regardless of their income, called for getting rid of for-profit private prisons. She has also stressed the need to ensure Americans who serve time in prison are reintegrated into society.

In June, Warren released a plan to ban private prisons, stop contractors from marking up prices on commissary goods, and install an independent Prison Conditions Monitor inside Department of Justice’s Office of the Inspector General.

Reproductive Rights

Acknowledging that court attacks on choice are not stopping anytime soon, Warren has issued a Congressional call to action to protect reproductive rights. She proposes ending the Hyde Amendment (which makes it difficult for women who get their health coverage through Medicaid, the VA, or the Indian Health Service to pay for an abortion) and for federal laws that would enshrine the protections of Roe v. Wade no matter what state you live in. In the same proposal, she calls for repealing the Trump administration’s gag rule that bars certain physicians from discussing abortion with their patients, and for an increase in funding for Title X, the federal government’s family planning programs.

Voting Rights

In June, Warren released a plan to fortify federal elections, which she wrote on Medium should be “as secure as Fort Knox.” The plan calls for modernizing election machines; blanket, federal standards including same-day registration, early voting, and vote-by-mail, rather than the current state-by-state regulations; measures to end gerrymandering; and making Election Day a national holiday.

Rural America

Prior to an early-August blitz through Iowa, Warren released a plan to invest in rural America. The plan calls for increased government investment in rural communities, including creating a “public option for broadband”; strengthening health care and economic security; and, in true Warren fashion, breaking up the agribusiness corporations that have been crippling smaller farmers for years. “Our failure to invest in rural areas is holding back millions of families, weakening our economy, and undermining our efforts to combat climate change,” Warren wrote. “It’s time to fix this.”

Abolishing the Electoral College

Warren supports abolishing the Electoral College, which she argued in March encourages candidates to “zero in on just a few battleground states, and they don’t get to hear about the issues that are on the top of people’s minds everywhere else in the country.” She added: “Everyone’s vote should count equally  —  in every election  —  no matter where they live.”

Packing the Supreme Court

The conversation about adding justices to the Supreme Court is “a conversation that’s worth having,” Warren told Politico earlier this year. In the same conversation, she floated the idea of bringing appellate judges onto Supreme Court cases. “It’s not just about expansion — it’s about depoliticizing the Supreme Court.”

Reparations

Warren supports offering reparations to black Americans in recognition of the economic toll of slavery. “We must confront the dark history of slavery and government-sanctioned discrimination in this country that has had many consequences, including undermining the ability of Black families to build wealth in America for generations,” she said in a statement to Reuters. But the form those reparations would take is somewhat unclear; for instance, it could take the form of legislation that guarantees a down-payment on a house (she’s introduced a bill proposing exactly that in the past), or something like her proposed Small Business Equity Fund, which would offer grants to help black-owned businesses get off the ground.

Family Care

Warren introduced the Universal Child Care and Early Learning Act in June. Among other provisions, it would ensure that no family pays more than seven percent of their income for child care, create a federally funded network of child care centers, and guarantee day care workers were paid on par with public school teachers.

U.S. Sen. Kamala Harris, D-Calif., a candidate for the 2020 Democratic presidential nomination, addresses the National Action Network Convention in New YorkNational Action Network Convention, New York, USA - 05 Apr 2019

Kamala Harris


Medicare-for-All

In July, Harris unveiled her 2020 health care proposal in a Medium post titled, “My Plan for Medicare for All.” The plan calls for the expansion of the current Medicare system while allowing “private insurers to offer Medicare plans as a part of this system that adhere to strict Medicare requirements on costs and benefits.” Harris’ plan sets the U.S. on track to adopt a Medicare-for-All-style system in 10 years (a timeframe that has drawn criticism). Even at the end of this 10-year transition period, however, the private insurance industry would not be eliminated. “This isn’t about pursuing an ideology,” she wrote in the post announcing the plan. “It’s about delivering for the American people.”

The plans puts to rest months of confusion as to whether Harris, who co-sponsored Bernie Sanders’ 2017 Medicare-for-All bill, supports the elimination of the private insurance industry. During a CNN town hall in January, Harris said “let’s eliminate all of that,” ostensibly in reference to private insurance. In May, she said the comment was actually in reference to all of the red tape in the health care system, and that she does indeed support some private insurance to supplement a government plan. She appeared to reverse course during the first Democratic debates in June when she was one of only two candidates onstage (the other being Bernie Sanders) to raise their hand when asked whether they supported the elimination of the private insurance industry. But the next day she said on Morning Joe that she misheard the question from moderator Lester Holt, clarifying once again that she does support some forms of private supplemental insurance.

It’s now clear that, unlike the author of the bill she supported in 2017, Harris does indeed want to retain the private insurance industry.

Closing the Wealth Gap

Though some progressives have proposed taxing the ultra-wealthy, Harris wants to focus on offering relief for the lower and middle classes. She’s unveiled a nearly $3 trillion plan that would provide a tax credit of $3,000 for single Americans making up to $30,000 annually and $6,000 for married couples making up to $60,000. “Americans are working harder than ever, but stagnant wages mean they can’t keep up with cost-of-living increases,” she said when she unveiled the plan in the fall of 2018. “We should put money back into the pockets of American families.”

Not surprisingly, Harris isn’t a huge fan of Trump’s 2017 tax bill, which favored corporations and wealthy Americans to a disproportionate degree. In May, she called for a full repeal of the bill during a campaign stop in Michigan. “Get rid of the whole thing,” she said.

Closing the Gender Gap

Harris has released what her website describes as the “most aggressive equal pay proposal in history.” The plan calls for companies to obtain “Equal Pay Certification,” which involves proving through various means that they are not giving preferential treatment to men over women in regard to pay, promotions, and more. Companies that do not obtain an Equal Pay Certification “will face a fine for every day they discriminate against their workers.” The larger the wage gap, the larger the fine. The plan would also involve overhauling anti-discrimination laws.

The Climate Crisis

Harris has a strong record on climate action — including sponsoring a bill that would give grants to coastal communities to prepare for sea-level rise and, when she was California’s attorney general, investigating ExxonMobil for its reported lies about the risks of climate change. She is one of a handful of candidates to co-sponsor the Green New Deal, the ambitious, multifaceted plan introduced by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) and Sen. Ed Markey (D-MA) seeking to bring the United States to net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. “Climate change is an existential threat to all of us, and we have got to deal with the reality of it,” Harris said in January.

Criminal Justice Reform

Harris’ record as prosecutor, district attorney, and the attorney general of California, a position she held from 2011-2017, has come under intense scrutiny as she has rolled out her presidential campaign. Though she did embrace many progressive measures as San Francisco’s DA and then as the state’s AG, she also started an anti-truancy program aimed at punishing parents whose children missed school, tried to prevent the release of prisoners despite an overcrowding problem, and supported the death penalty.

Harris has taken a more progressive stance since announcing her run for the White House. In March she called for a federal moratorium on executions, calling them “immoral, discriminatory, ineffective, and a gross misuse of taxpayer dollars.” A month later, she expressed “regret” for the anti-truancy program she instituted as DA. At a She The People forum later in April, Harris said she would “absolutely” pardon those convicted of drug-related crimes. “We have to have the courage to recognize that there are a lot of folks who have been incarcerated who should not have been incarcerated and are still in prison because they were convicted under draconian laws that have incarcerated them,” she said.

Guns

In April, Harris said that if Congress does not enact meaningful gun legislation within her first 100 days in office, she would take executive action to bring about several gun control measures. “We need reasonable gun safety laws in this country, starting with universal background checks and a renewal of the assault weapon ban,” she said at a CNN town hall event, “but they have failed to have the courage to act.”

The executive actions would require background checks of anyone buying guns from a dealer who sells more than five guns per year, impose regulations on gun manufacturers and close the “boyfriend loophole,” which allows some domestic abusers to purchase guns so long as they were not married to the victim.

Housing

In April, Harris reintroduced to the Senate her Rent Relief Act, a bill aimed at combating rising rent costs by offering a refundable tax credit to Americans making less than $100,000 a year who spending at least 30 percent of their income on rent and utilities.

Harris wasn’t done there. While speaking at the Essence Festival in July, she unveiled plans for a $100 billion program to help Americans buy homes. The plan is aimed at “put[ting] homeownership within the reach” for people of color, and would provide down-payment and closing-cost grants of up to $25,000 for low- to moderate-income families and individuals. Harris estimates the program would provide “at least 4 million families/individuals living in federally-supported or renting housing in these historically red-lined communities with down payment and closing cost assistance.”

Days after rolling out her housing plan at the Essence Festival, Harris announced that she was introducing a bill along with Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-NY) that would reform eviction and screening processes so that those with criminal records would access to affordable housing. “Too many people come out of the criminal justice system only to face additional barriers to transitioning back into their community,” Harris tweeted.

The Fair Chance at Housing Act of 2019, as the bill is dubbed, would replace “one-strike” policies that permit eviction after a criminal incident with a review process, prevent families from being evicted if a guest commits and infraction, and more. “By requiring a higher standard of evidence and a more holistic review process, we are taking a significant step toward giving Americans a fair chance to succeed,” Harris added.

Foreign Policy

Harris has criticized Trump’s approach to foreign policy. “America’s position in the world has never been weaker,” she said during her campaign kickoff event. “When democratic values are under attack around the globe, when authoritarianism is on the march, when nuclear proliferation is on the rise, when we have foreign powers infecting the White House like malware.”

The senator has come under scrutiny from the more progressive wing of the party for her cozy relationship with Israel, and her failure to publicly condemn the nation’s human rights abuses against Palestinians. In March, Harris reinforced her relationship with the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), tweeting a picture of herself meeting with the organization’s California leaders.

Free College

In April, Harris wrote on Medium that she was co-sponsoring the College For All Act, which eliminates tuition and fees for public colleges and universities for 80 percent of Americans (those earning less than $125,000 per year).

In July, she tweeted that she’ll “establish a student loan debt forgiveness program for Pell Grant recipients who start a business that operates for three years in disadvantaged communities.” The tweeted prompted widespread criticism for its narrow focus. A day later, Harris thanked people for their “feedback” and tried to “clarify confusion” about the proposal, stressing that she’ll also help close the opportunity gap through $12 billion in direct capital investments, along with other measures detailed on her website.

Immigration

Harris has said we should “re-examine” the role of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), suggesting that it could be time to scrap the agency. She has been fiercely critical of Trump’s family separation policy at the border, and a vocal supporter of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, protecting undocumented residents who were brought to the country when they were young, who are also known as Dreamers.

Harris has been criticized, however, for supporting a policy that turned over arrested undocumented youth to ICE when she was the San Francisco district attorney. She has since said this was an “unintended consequence” of the 2008 policy and that she “did not support that consequence of that policy.” This has been disputed.

Legal Weed

In February, Harris called for the federal legalization of marijuana. “I think it gives a lot of people joy, and we need more joy,” she said on New York radio show The Breakfast Club. During the same appearance, she said she smoked a joint in college at Howard University. “And I did inhale,” she said.

In July, she introduced the Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement Act along with House Judiciary Chairman Jerry Nadler. “Times have changed — marijuana should not be a crime,” she said about the bill aimed at decriminalizing marijuana on a federal level. “We need to start regulating marijuana, and expunge marijuana convictions from the records of millions of Americans so they can get on with their lives. As marijuana becomes legal across the country, we must make sure everyone — especially communities of color that have been disproportionately impacted by the War on Drugs — has a real opportunity to participate in this growing industry.”

Reproductive Rights

In May, Harris unveiled a plan to institute what she calls the Reproductive Rights Act, which would prevent states “with a history of violating Roe v. Wade” from enacting abortion-restricting laws without first clearing the legislation with the Justice Department.

In June, she spoke out against the Hyde Amendment, which restricts federal funding for abortion except in extreme cases such as rape and incest. “No woman’s access to reproductive health care should be based on how much money she has,” she tweeted. “We must repeal the Hyde Amendment.”

Abolishing the Electoral College

In March, Harris said on Jimmy Kimmel Live! that she is “open to the discussion” surrounding the abolition of the Electoral College. “There’s no question that the popular vote has been diminished in terms of making the final decision about who’s the president of the United States and we need to deal with that.”

Packing the Supreme Court

Though she has not advocated for a particular position, Harris told Politico in March that she is open to the idea of adding justices to the Supreme Court. “We are on the verge of a crisis of confidence in the Supreme Court,” she said. “We have to take this challenge head on, and everything is on the table to do that.”

Voting Rights

Harris has called for the need to “update and reinvigorate” the Voting Rights Act, and tweeted the need for legislation to expand early voting, modernize voting systems and curb the effect of discriminatory voting laws. Asked in April whether she supports allowing incarcerated Americans to vote, the former prosecutor called the issue “complex” and said she’d think about it.

Reparations

Like many candidates, Harris has said that the idea of reparations needs to be considered. In March, she spoke to NPR about the generational effects of slavery — including how African Americans have higher rates of heart disease and high blood pressure — suggesting reparations could come in the form of mental health treatment. “We need to study the effects of generations of discrimination and institutional racism and determine what can be done, in terms of intervention, to correct course,” she said.

Family Care

Harris said during a CNN town hall event in January that she “absolutely” supports a nationwide paid parental-leave policy. “Even more than that,” she added, “I support … a national policy around affordable childcare. I support what we need to do around universal pre-K. I support what we need to do around having a public education system that benefits our children and not vilifying public school teachers.”

Democratic presidential candidate Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-Vt., arrives to speak at George Washington University in Washington, on his policy of democratic socialism, the economic philosophy that has guided his political careerElection 2020 Bernie Sanders, Washington, USA - 12 Jun 2019

Bernie Sanders


Medicare-for-All

Sanders is the author of Medicare-for-All legislation in the Senate. His bill would transform Medicare into cradle-to-grave insurance coverage for all American residents, financed by taxes, so there would be no fees at doctors offices, emergency rooms, or hospitals. Over a decade, the government would need to fund and administer a $32 trillion program, but studies have suggested overall U.S. spending on health care could drop, even as tens of millions gain coverage. “Here is the truth that the drug and insurance companies do not want you to know,” Sanders tweeted in May. “Expanding Medicare to everyone will save the American people money.”

Closing the Wealth Gap

When Sanders, the democratic socialist, preaches “revolution,” he is talking about wresting power and wealth from the billionaire class to create security and opportunity for working people and “an economy that works for all.” Sanders is targeting the wealth of America’s oligarchs, and has proposed hiking the estate tax to 77 percent on the fortunes of the very wealthiest, aiming to raise “$2.2 trillion from the nation’s 588 billionaires,” including $74 billion from the Koch brothers alone. “If the Koch brothers and the billionaire class hate my guts, I welcome their hatred,” Sanders has long said. It’s a line he cribbed from FDR, from whom he has also taken the idea of an Economic Bill of Rights, calling for, among other things, the government to guarantee a “decent-paying job” to everyone who can work. “A job guarantee will lower the crime rate, improve mental health, and create a stronger sense of community,” Sanders has said. “It will create a much healthier and happier America.” He’s also been a longtime proponent of raising the federal minimum wage from $7.25 per hour (a “starvation wage”) to $15 per hour, insisting: “It is not a radical idea to say a job should lift you out of poverty, not keep you in it.”  

The Climate Crisis

Sanders’ campaign has not released a detailed climate policy, but he was a co-sponsor of the Green New Deal resolution released by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Sen. Ed Markey — an ambitious, comprehensive approach to the climate crisis that encompasses not just getting to net-zero carbon emissions but investing in job creation, infrastructure and protecting the frontline communities hardest hit by climate change. Sanders also appeared at a Green New Deal rally at Howard University in May. “Climate change is not a hoax but is an existential threat to our country and the entire planet,” he has said, “and we intend to transform our energy system away from fossil fuel and into energy efficiency and sustainable energy and, in the process, create millions of good paying jobs.”

Foreign Policy

Sanders’ rhetoric on foreign policy has often mirrored his domestic priorities, condemning the power of corporate multinationals and oligarchic concentrations of wealth. His record leans toward an anti-interventionist stance — he voted against the Iraq war and more recently did not support ousting Venezuelan dictator Nicolas Maduro, citing the U.S’s “long history of inappropriately intervening in Latin-American countries,” adding, “we must not go down that road again.” Sanders has called for Congress to reclaim its power to declare war and in April invoked the War Powers Resolution to cut off U.S. support for the Saudi-led war in Yemen. “We’re not going to invest in never-ending wars,” he has said.

During a July interview with Pod Save America, Sanders offered sharp criticisms of Israel under Benjamin Netanyahu, and said that he would “absolutely” considering cutting American aid to Israel in order to force the nation to behave differently. “You have an extreme right-wing government with many racist tendencies,” he said of the nation under Netanyahu, adding that “our policy cannot just be pro-Israel, pro-Israel, pro-Israel; it has got to be pro-region working with all of the people, all of the countries in that area.”

Guns

Sanders has been slow to evolve on gun control. He voted for the NRA-backed 2005 bill that made most gun makers immune from accountability for misuse of their weapons, sparking the reckless marketing of military-style weapons. During his 2016 campaign, Sanders cited his concern for mom-and-pop gun shops to justify his vote. In his announcement speech for his 2020 run, Sanders sounded more like a conventional progressive: “I’m running for president because we must end the epidemic of gun violence in this country,” he said. “We need to take on the NRA, expand background checks, end the gun-show loophole, and ban the sale and distribution of assault weapons.”

Free College

Sanders pushed the call for free college to the fore in his 2016 campaign, and continues to champion the policy in 2020. He has called for free public college tuition, with the federal government covering 67 percent of this cost and states the remaining 33 percent. His plan seeks to “fully fund” historically black colleges and universities — financed by a transaction fee for Wall Street trades on stocks, bonds, and derivatives. Sanders is proposing to use the same Wall Street tax to fund a debt jubilee, wiping out all $1.6 trillion in outstanding student loans. “If we could bail out Wall Street, we sure as hell can #CancelStudentDebt,” he tweeted after announcing his new debt relief legislation in June.

Legal Weed

Sanders supports the Marijuana Justice Act, which would remove marijuana from the Controlled Substances Act, meaning it would no longer be federally prohibited and legality would be left up to the states. The act would also invest at least $500 million a year in communities hardest hit by the Drug War and withhold federal Department of Justice funding from states that enforce their own pot laws unequally. 

He ratcheted up his rhetoric on the issue during an appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience in August, saying that, if elected, he would use an executive order to remove marijuana from the list of Schedule I narcotics, which also includes heroin. “That is insane,” he told Rogan. “Heroin is a killer drug. You can argue the plusses and minuses of marijuana, but marijuana ain’t heroin. So we have to end that and that’s what I will do as president of the United States. I believe we can do that through executive order and I will do that.”

Abolishing the Electoral College

Sanders wants to “reexamine” the Electoral College. “It is hard to defend the current system in which one candidate receives 3 million votes less than his opponent, but still becomes president,” he said.

Packing the Supreme Court

Sanders has voiced support for reforming the Supreme Court — perhaps by rotating on new justices from the appellate courts — but he’s concerned that conservatives could retaliate if progressives pack the court. “My worry is that the next time the Republicans are in power they will do the same thing. So I think that is not the ultimate solution,” he said at the We The People summit.

Criminal Justice Reform

Sanders voted for the 1994 Crime Bill, placing him in company with Joe Biden. Today he wants to end the drug war, including by legalizing marijuana. Sanders also seeks to end cash bail, mandatory minimums, private prisons, and the death penalty.

Reparations

Sanders, who is not given to fiscal conservatism, has balked at reparations for slavery, telling The View: “I think that right now our job is to address the crises facing the American people in our communities. And I think there are better ways to do that than just writing out a check.”

He elaborated on his position during a July appearance on “Black Coffee” with Marc Lamont Hill. “My preferred solution,” Sanders said, “is … focusing a very substantial amount of federal money on distressed communities in America, which in most cases, not all, will be African-American communities. That means paying attention and rebuilding schools; making sure the young people who are graduating high school are not falling through the cracks — that they have the job training or the ability to go to college; making sure there is decent housing and that the environment in those communities is adequate; and making sure everybody has health care.”

Family Care

In addition to calling for universal pre-K, Sanders wants universal child care. “In a society with our resources, it is unconscionable that we do not properly invest in our children from the very first stages of their lives,” he tweeted in February. “We need universal, publicly funded childcare.”

Reproductive Rights

Sanders has been on the record as staunchly pro-choice since 1972, when he was quoted in a Vermont newspaper saying: “It strikes me as incredible that politicians think that they have the rig