Songs for a Good Cause: Live Aid, Band Aid, We Are the World – Rolling Stone
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Heal the World: 20 Songs for a Good Cause

Here are 20 tracks that did their best to heal the world


USA for Africa: We Are The World, 1985

Everett Collection

“Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent,” Victor Hugo wrote in 1864 — approximately 120 years before Band Aid was a thing. Songs have long been powerful vehicles for social change, either through the messages contained in their lyrics, or as high-profile celebrity fundraisers. Early folk tunes carried rebellious subtexts designed to drive listeners to action (or at least keep the faith) and later songs by the likes of Woody Guthrie and Bob Dylan were imbued with the sound of change.

As music transitioned from a performance-based medium to a primarily recorded one, mega-production benefit singles became the splashiest way to make a statement through song. Some became instantly hummable anthems, and others feature the vocal stylings of Jean-Claude Van Damme. Hey, it’s all for a good cause.

Harrison Shankar Former Beatle George Harrison, left, is shown at a press conference at the Abkco Industries offices in New York, where he announced a benefit concert for the Bangladesh refugees. He speaks with Indian sitar player Ravi Shakar. The concert, Harrison's first in four years, is scheduled for August 1 at Madison Square Garden. Seats for both performances were sold outHARRISON BANGLADESH 1971, NEW YORK, USA

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“Bangla Desh” by George Harrison (1971)

While working together on the documentary Raga in the summer of 1971, George Harrison’s longtime friend and mentor Ravi Shankar informed the former Beatle of a humanitarian crisis unfolding half a globe away. The nation of East Pakistan (formerly East Bengal) had endured a devastating cyclone the previous November, leaving more than 300,000 dead. Inaction and general apathy from the ruling West Pakistani government prompted a push for liberation, as Eastern nationals declared themselves the independent country of Bangladesh. The move sparked a bloody war, with West Parkistani troops committing genocidal acts against Bangladeshi citizens. Adding to the catastrophe, refugees found their passage to safe harbor in northeast India hampered by torrential rains and flooding. Shankar, a native Bengal, urged Harrison to use his global influence to render aid. “I was in a very sad mood, having read all this news,” Shankar told Rolling Stone, “and I said, ‘George, this is the situation, I know it doesn’t concern you, I know you can’t possibly identify.’ But while I talked to George he was very deeply moved … and he said, ‘Yes, I think I’ll be able to do something.'”

Over the course of six weeks, he hastily assembled a star-studded lineup for two benefit shows at New York’s Madison Square Garden, slated for August 1st. Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Billy Preston, Leon Russell and the band Badfinger all gamely signed on, but Harrison needed something more to earn some advance hype — and dollars. “I got tired of people saying, ‘But what can I do?’ Also, the reluctance of the press to report the full details created the need to bring attention to it,” he wrote in his 1979 memoir I Me Mine. “So the song ‘Bangla Desh’ was written specifically to get attention to the war prior to the concert.” Recorded at L.A.’s Record Plant in early July, the Phil Spector co-production begins with Harrison’s introduction to the crisis (“My friend came to me with sadness in his eyes / Told me that he wanted help before his country dies”) before calling on listeners to “help us save some lives.” The track was rush-released, hitting stands just days before the New York concert dates. Its striking sleeve featured a startling UPI image of a mother and her starving child, along with news clippings detailing the atrocity, and information on how to donate to the emergency relief fund.

A standout number at the Concert for Bangladesh shows, the song would reach Number 23 on Billboard chart. Along with the ticket sales and the accompanying triple-disc live album, “Bengla Desh” helped raise millions for Bangladeshi aid. Equally important, it helped establish a blueprint for rock charity singles and large scale benefit shows to come. “The Concert for Bangladesh was just a moral stance,” Harrison later said. “These kinds of things have grown over the years, but what we did showed the musicians and people are more humane than politicians. Today, people accept the commitment rock ‘n’ roll musicians have when they perform for a charity. When I did it, they said things like, ‘He’s only doing this to be nice.'”


UNSPECIFIED - JANUARY 01:  Photo of Stevie WONDER  (Photo by Phil Dent/Redferns)

Phil Dent/Getty Images

“Don’t Drive Drunk” by Stevie Wonder (1984)

Stevie Wonder has a long history of using his music for social change, dating back to his achingly earnest 1966 version of Bob Dylan’s “Blowin’ in the Wind.” The Motown wunderkind’s 1981 single “Happy Birthday” became an anthem for the campaign to make Dr. Martin Luther King’s birthday a national holiday, and it remains a beloved song of celebration to this day. The same can’t be said for “Don’t Drive Drunk.” One of the more on-the-nose activism songs in the pop music cannon, the well-intended tune was included on the Wonder-led soundtrack to The Woman in Red, and used as the centerpiece for a US Department of Transportation PSA. In addition to a music video and 30-second television ad spot, the campaign included a poster, which was placed in 16,000 high schools, featuring Wonder’s image above the words “Before I ride with a drunk, I’ll drive myself.”


Bob Geldof, U2 arrive to record "Feed the World" single in November 1984

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“Do They Know It’s Christmas?” by Band Aid (1984)

The age of the celebrity supergroup charity single truly began in October 1984, when Boomtown Rats singer Bob Geldof watched in horror as footage of the worsening Ethiopian famine played across his television screen as part of a BBC News documentary. He was still haunted by the images a week later when a chance encounter reunited him with an old friend, Ultravox frontman Midge Ure, who was just as troubled by what he had seen on the report. The men decided to channel their outrage into a new charity single.

The plan grew significantly larger in scope after Geldof made some calls to the British pop community. “I rang Sting and he said, ‘Yeah, count me in,’ and then [Simon] Le Bon. He just immediately said, ‘Tell me the date and we’ll clear the diary,’” Geldof told Melody Maker in 1984. “The same day I was passing by this antique shop and who is standing in there but [Spandau Ballet’s] Gary Kemp, just about to go off on tour to Japan. He said he was mad for it as well and to wait 10 days till they got back in the country… suddenly it hit me. I thought, ‘Christ, we have got the real top boys here,’ all the big names in pop are suddenly ready and willing to do this… I knew then that we were off, and I just decided to go for all the rest of the faces and started to ring everyone up, asking them to do it.”

Now they needed a song. Recording an old standard would cost royalties, thus eating into the proceeds, so they adapted a semi-complete tune Geldof had written for the Boomtown Rats, tentatively titled “It’s My World.” Following a yuletide overhaul by the pair, the result was “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” — a song to, in Ure’s words, “touch people’s heartstrings and to loosen the purse strings.”

The group assembled at Sarm West Studios on November 25th, 1984 was a venerable who’s who of recent UK chart toppers. The verses were sung by Paul Young, Boy George, George Michael, Le Bon, and Bono (respectively), while the “Feed the world” chorus featured Geldof, Ure, David Bowie, Phil Collins, Paul McCartney, Status Quo, Bananarama, Paul Weller and many others. The singers had not heard the track in advance, and learned their lines on the spot with the help of a demo tape Ure prepared. This caused a minor incident with Bono, who was not pleased with having to sing the acidic “Tonight, thank God, it’s them instead of you” passage. “I told [Geldof] I didn’t want to sing the line,” Bono recalled in the book U2 by U2. “He said, ‘This is not about what you want, OK? This is about what these people need.’ I was too young to say, ‘This is about what you want.’ But it was his show and I was happy to be in it.” Despite Bono’s misgivings, the line became one of Ure’s favorite parts of the song. “I had originally sung it on the guide vocal an octave lower, and he just decided to let it rip, and it was phenomenal,” he told Songfacts in 2015. “Electric. It was just sensational.”

The vocal track was completed in one marathon 24-hour session, and — amazingly — in shops just days later, credited to “Band Aid.” Thanks to a massive publicity campaign and an hourly push on BBC radio, “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” shot to number one in the UK, where it remained the biggest selling single until Elton John’s “Candle in the Wind 1997.” In addition to the tens of millions of dollars it raised worldwide for Ethiopian famine relief, the song helped sew the seeds for Geldof and Ure’s Live Aid concert the following year. Though some have criticized the tune’s musical shortcomings, Geldof remains defiant. “Please, it’s a pop song. Relax,” he said in a 2014 interview with The Telegraph. “It’s not a doctoral thesis.” Ure echoed the sentiment in his 2004 autobiography. “It is a song that has nothing to do with music. It was all about generating money… The song didn’t matter: the song was secondary, almost irrelevant.”

WE ARE THE WORLD: A YEAR OF GIVING, Darryl Hall, Lionel Richie, Steve Perry, Kenny Loggins, Dan Aykroyd, Harry Belefonte, Bob Geldof, Tina Turner, Billy Joe, Cyndi Lauper, Dionne Warwick, Bruce Springsteen, Kenny Rogers, Huey Lewis, John Oates, P. Simon, K. Carnes, M. Jackson, D. Ross, S. Wonder, B. Dylan, S. Robinson, R. Charles, Jacksons, B. Midler, 1985

Everett Collection

“We Are the World” by USA for Africa (1985)

Quincy Jones is traditionally viewed as the mastermind behind the apex of all charity singles, but it was actually Harry Belafonte who instigated the idea in the wake of Band Aid’s “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” Seeking to make a star-studded Yankee equivalent to alleviate the Ethiopian famine, Belafonte contacted entertainment manager and fellow activist Ken Kragen, who drafted clients Lionel Richie and Kenny Rogers, as well as Stevie Wonder. But the production escalated once Jones and his extensive Rolodex were brought into the mix. He called in Michael Jackson to write the song with Richie and Wonder, and word of the collaboration quickly spread throughout the highest reaches of the music industry. When Wonder was forced to bow out due to prior commitments, the remaining pair retired to the Jackson family’s Encino estate to pen an anthem to order — though not fast enough for Jones’ liking. “[Michael] and Lionel were there hangin’, sitting around talking about Motown and old times,” the producer recalled in his book, The Complete Quincy Jones: My Journey & Passions. “I said, ‘My dear brothers, we have 46 stars coming in less than three weeks, and we need a damn song!” They were still finalizing the words for what became “We Are the World” the night before the first sessions began.

On January 28th, 1985, the biggest stars in the music world drifted into Hollywood’s A&M Studios, many coming straight from the American Music Awards happening across town that same night. Aware that doing a charity record in black tie sent the wrong kind of message, Jones urged casual attire, and famously issued a friendly warning to all concerned: “Check your egos at the door.” Jackson recorded his parts first around 9 p.m., and by 10:30 the full session was under way. In addition to Richie, Wonder, Rogers, and Jackson, soloists included Paul Simon, James Ingram, Tina Turner, Billy Joel, Diana Ross, Dionne Warwick, Willie Nelson, Al Jarreau, Bruce Springsteen, Kenny Loggins, Steve Perry, Daryl Hall, Huey Lewis, Cyndi Lauper, Kim Carnes, Bob Dylan, and Ray Charles. An A-list backing choir of 20 was filled out by the likes of Bette Midler, Smokey Robinson, The Pointer Sisters, LaToya Jackson, Waylon Jennings, and Band Aid architect Bob Geldof.

Even though the celebs showed up, there was still some in-studio dissent about the track, which some felt was a little too saccharine. “Most of us who were there didn’t like the song, but nobody would say so,” Billy Joel told Rolling Stone in 2005. “I think Cyndi Lauper leaned over to me and said, ‘It sounds like a Pepsi commercial.’ And I didn’t disagree.” Prince went so far as to decline to participate in the project, though his reasons for doing so are disputed. He ultimately contributed a track to the full length album that accompanied the single, but Huey Lewis took his solo on “We Are the World.”

The sessions continued for nearly 12 hours, and by 8 a.m. the following morning only Jones and Richie remained in the studio. What they had on their hands would break records. Released on March 7th, 1985, the song became the fastest-selling American pop single in history up to that point, moving 800,000 copies within three days of its release, and eventually selling upwards of 20 million worldwide — making it the bestselling single of the decade. All told, it raised over $63 million in humanitarian aid for Africa and the United States. For Jones, it remains a highlight of his celebrated career. “Here you had 46 of the biggest recording stars in the entire world in one room, to help people in a far-off place who were in desperate need,” he recalled in a 2015 USA Today interview. “I don’t think that night, that experience, will ever truly be duplicated again. I know and believe in the power of music to bring people together for the betterment of mankind, and there may be no better example of this than the collective that was ‘We Are the World.’”

CANADA - FEBRUARY 10:  Joni Mitchell: 'People think that when you change you're not being authentic;' she says.   (Photo by David Cooper/Toronto Star via Getty Images)

David Cooper/Toronto Star/Getty Images

“Tears Are Not Enough” by Northern Lights (1985)

After Quincy Jones wrapped “We Are the World,” he put in a call to Canadian super-producer David Foster asking him to record a similar song with musicians hailing from the Great White North. Jones wanted to include the track on his full length We Are the World album, but the deadline was tight. Foster, working with his manager Bruce Allen, had just nine days to turn it around. Allen set about securing the talent, while Foster began adapting a song written by Paul Hyde and Bob Rock of the Payolas, a Vancouver New Wave band he was producing at the time. Using their title “Tears Are Not Enough” as a starting point, Foster composed his own melody before kicking it to over to Bryan Adams and Jim Vallance for lyrics. Vallance’s wife, musician Rachel Paiement, contributed a French verse for authentic Québécois flavor.

On February 10th, 1985, a cadre of over 50 of Canada’s biggest entertainers — including Adams, Gordon Lightfoot, Joni Mitchell, Neil Young, Geddy Lee, Anne Murray, and Dan Hill— gathered at Manta Studios in Toronto for the session. “The West and East Coast of Canada weren’t exactly on the best of terms, musically,” Foster later told the CBC. “We were bringing them together for the first time.” Ironically, given the song’s subject matter, Mitchell arrived at the studio suffering from severe hunger pains due to a bout of stomach troubles. “We get in the studio, and the engineer says he can’t record ’cause he’s picking up some weird rumbling sound coming from my direction,” she told the Chicago Tribune in 1985. That wasn’t the only delay in the studio. Foster famously asked Young to do another pass on one line, believing the Godfather of Grunge was a little flat. “That’s my sound, man,” Young replied.

The final version of “Tears Are Not Alone” was released as a single that May, raising $3.1 famine relief projects and Canadian food banks.

sun city steven van zandt

Courtesy of Steven Van Zandt

“Sun City” by Artists United Against Apartheid (1985)

With “Sun City,” Steven Van Zandt took aim at both the South African policy of Apartheid, as well as artists who broke the UN-sanctioned cultural boycott of the nation by performing at the titular resort in Bophuthatswana — a nominally independent state created by the segregationist Afrikaaner government to house impoverished Blacks who had been forcibly relocated. The guitarist journeyed to the country in 1984 during his split from the E Street Band, hoping to learn more about the conditions that the American media only hinted at. “I couldn’t find out much about South Africa at the time. All I was hearing was they were putting in government reforms, and things were improving down there,” he told the Hollywood Reporter in 2013. “So I went down there twice in ’84, just to do the research. Of course, I found out that there was not any reforms really going on. Apartheid was not something you could reform; it had to be eliminated entirely. And so I decided at that point to sit down and figure out a strategy as to how this could be eliminated.” With the help of journalist Danny Schechter, he began writing a track to serve as a rallying cry for the declining anti-Apartheid movement.

Briefly considered for a spot on his 1987 solo album Freedom — No Compromise, the song quickly evolved into a considerably bigger project. Along with Schechter and producer Arthur Baker, Van Zandt approached a host of artists to participate in the recording. “I was gonna maybe have five or six artists on it, then it turned into 50 artists,” Van Zandt later said. Taped piecemeal in four different cities as artists became available, “Sun City” eventually stretched to a sprawling six-and-a-half minute epic that blended rock with jazz and nascent hip-hop. “Fifty-eight stars agreed to be part of it, and the fact is, many more wanted to be part of it when they found about it,” Schechter said in a 2013 WBUR radio interview. “There were no more lines to sing.” Luminaries including Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, Run DMC, George Clinton, Grandmaster Melle Mel, DJ Kool Herc, Jackson Browne, Bono, Lou Reed, Pete Townshend, Keith Richards, Ringo Starr, Herbie Hancock, Miles Davis, Bonnie Raitt, Joey Ramone, and Pat Benatar all agreed to participate, adding immense power the defiant refrain: “I, I, I, I, I, I ain’t gonna play Sun City!” So many artists lent their services that the song gave way to a seven-track, 45-minute album featuring songs by Bono and Peter Gabriel.

Its unusual genre melding and lengthy runtime made it too unwieldy to be a radio hit, but sales from the project raised over $1 million for anti-Apartheid efforts, and the video’s regular broadcast on MTV helped make Apartheid a mainstream issue in the United States. “It just completely re-energized the entire movement, which it really frankly needed at the time,” Van Zandt reflected in 2013. “We had that ability with that kind of firepower. They want to ignore you. It’s only when you get in their face and they can’t ignore you that you might get something done.” South African Apartheid policies were dismantled following a series of negotiations in the early Nineties. The first truly free election open to all South Africans after decades of white minority rule resulted in the appointment of Nelson Mandela as the nation’s first Black chief executive.

UNSPECIFIED - JANUARY 01:  Photo of Mick JAGGER and David BOWIE and ROLLING STONES; with Mick Jagger performing in the video for 'Dancing in the Street'  (Photo by RB/Redferns)

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“Dancing in the Street” by Mick Jagger and David Bowie (1985)

This oft-maligned duet of the Motown stomper was initially planned, at Bob Geldof’s request, as a cross-continental collaboration during 1985’s Live Aid broadcast, with Jagger performing at John F. Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia and Bowie at London’s Wembley Stadium. When it was discovered that the satellite link’s split-second lag time would make the vocal swaps unworkable, the concert idea was scrapped and they decided to record the song in a traditional facility as a charity single. Jagger joined Bowie at Abbey Road Studios, where he was hard at work on the soundtrack for Absolute Beginners, and together they finished the synthed-out Martha & the Vandellas update in four hours. “We banged it out in just two takes,” Jagger told Rolling Stone in 2007. “It was an interesting exercise in how you can do something without worrying too much.” That same day they traveled to the London Docklands to shoot the music video with director David Mallet, which was to be shown twice during the Live Aid concert telecast. It went on to have a longer life on YouTube, where the duo’s enthusiastic leaping and overzealous dance moves — to say nothing of Bowie’s leopard-print jumpsuit and Jagger’s electric green shirt — helped the clip achieve infamy in the viral video realm. “It was fantastically Eighties!” the Rolling Stone later marveled. Any crimes against style can be forgiven as the song raised millions for African famine relief.

Dionne Warwick with Lionel Richie perform at the finale of Live Aid at Veteran's Stadium in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,  July 13, 1985. (Photo by Paul Natkin/Getty Images)

Paul Natkin/Getty Images

“That’s What Friends Are For” by Dionne & Friends (1985)

Before reuniting pop maestro Burt Bacharach with longtime muse Dionne Warwick, “That’s What Friends Are For” was initially recorded by Rod Stewart for the soundtrack to Night Shift — Ron Howard’s 1982 comedy about two friends running their own prostitute ring. Bacharach and his co-writer/wife Carole Bayer Sager felt that that tune deserved a fate more illustrious than closing credit music. “The record company didn’t want to consider it as a single for Rod because they thought it was too soft,” Bayer Sager says in The Billboard Book of Number One Hits. “The song quietly slipped into oblivion.” How it wound up revived as a smash charity single is contested: Warwick has said she heard the song after falling asleep in front of the television one night, while Bayer Sager claims she presented it with a batch of new material as they began recording her Friends album. Whatever the case, Warwick decided to invite Stevie Wonder to record a vocal take for a duet, and Bayer Sager showed up to the session with actress Elizabeth Taylor — then deeply engrossed in helping launch the AIDS research organization AmFAR. Over the course of their conversation, the benefit concept was born. Elton John, who had previously asked Wonder to play harmonica on his 1982 song “I Guess That’s Why They Call it the Blues,” was enlisted at the advice of Arista Records chief Clive Davis, as was Gladys Knight.

With each part recorded separately, Bayer Sager and Bacharach labored to assemble the piece into a cohesive whole. The completed track sailed to the top of the charts within weeks of its release in November 1985. As well as earning Grammys for Best Performance by a Duo or Group and Song of the Year, “That’s What Friends Are For” raised millions for AmFAR and made great strides in helping erase the stigma that was still associated with the disease. “Those who felt they didn’t want to be involved with it — to be seen giving money or being heard talking about the crisis — that song was an avenue to reach out,” Warwick later reflected.

Portrait of musician and activist Bob Geldof with the stars of the charity group 'Hear 'n Aid', a follow up to charity single Band Aid, London, April 10th 1986. (Photo by Dave Hogan/Getty Images) *** Local Caption ***

Dave Hogan/Getty Images

“Stars” by Hear ‘N Aid (1986)

Dio bandmates Jimmy Bain and Vivian Campbell were attending a 48-hour charity “radiothon” at the L.A. station KLOS when they made a startling realization: they were basically the only heavy metal musicians there. They mentioned this to their bandleader, multi-octave shouter and devil horn pioneer Ronnie James Dio, and together they hatched a plan to correct this grievous wrong and record a charity record that truly rocked. Penned by the trio, the result was called “Stars.”

On May 20th, 1985, Los Angeles’ A&M Records studio — the same facility where “We Are the World” was cut just months earlier — played host to a heavy metal summit that has seldom been equaled. Dio shared lead vocals with Eric Bloom, Don Dokken, Kevin DuBrow, Rob Halford, Dave Meniketti, Paul Shortino and Geoff Tate, with backing help from 30 others including Yngwie Malmsteen, Vince Neil, Mick Mars, Neal Schon and even Harry Shearer in full Spinal Tap persona. “I imagine most of the fans assumed we all knew each other,” Halford said in an interview with Louder Sound. “We didn’t at all. In fact for the first few hours, I think most of us were looking at each other the way we got portrayed in rock magazines… Once we’d let our guards drop a bit the feeling was just tremendous — to sit down and talk with people I’ve always admired.”

The group, under the banner Hear ‘N Aid, tackled the vocals first, before spending the following day on the nine 12-bar guitar passages from Campbell, Malmsteen, Schon, Eddie Ojeda, George Lynch, Craig Goldy, Brad Gillis, Buck Dharma, Carlos Cavaz. Needless to say, egos made the session somewhat fraught. “You put a bunch of Eighties guitarists in the same room and, of course, there’s going to be competition for bragging rights,” Campbell recalled. “They were even arguing about who had the biggest hair.” Ted Nugent, miffed that he wasn’t asked to join in on the guitar throw down, reportedly yelled, “If you let me play guitar on the track, them kids won’t be hungry no more!”

Contractual problems held the song up for months before it was finally released in January 1986. The single, and the accompanying album, raised a reported $1 million for African famine relief in its first year, with the funds earmarked for agricultural machinery.

Digital Underground, Tone Loc, Easy E, Fab Five Freddy, Mike Concipion (Photo by Jeff Kravitz/FilmMagic, Inc)

Jeff Kravitz/FilmMagic

“We’re All in the Same Gang” by West Coast Rap All-Stars (1990)

The late Eighties saw an alarming spike in gang warfare across the country, prompting the hip-hop community to speak out. KRS-One assembled his Boogie Down Production band mates and a collective of East Coast MCs (including Kool Moe Dee, Heavy D, and Public Enemy) to record the single “Self Destruction,” which topped the rap charts in 1989. The West Coast responded in kind the following year with “We’re All in the Same Gang,” a song condemning the increasingly bloody feud between rival Los Angeles outfits the Crips and the Bloods. Fourteen of the most influential West Coast hip-hop acts contributed verses to the seven-and-a-half minute track, including Tone Loc, Young M.C., M.C. Hammer, Ice-T and Dr. Dre (who served as producer). The piece was conceived by Michael Concepcion, a former Crips member who had been paralyzed in a gang-related shooting. “I wanted to stop these kids from making the same bad mistakes I did,” he told the Washington Post in 1990.

The rhymes warned Black youths against fighting among themselves, particularly in light of the racial tension endemic in American society. “Yo, bullets flying, mothers crying, brothers dying,” Dr. Dre rapped with MC Ren. “Lying in the streets, that’s why we’re trying / To stop it from falling apart and going to waste / And keeping a smile off of white face.” A music video, filmed on location at the Nickerson Gardens public housing project in Watts — gangland grand zero — helped earn the song mainstream exposure on MTV. A year after its release “We’re All in the Same Gang” was nominated for Best Rap Performance at the 33rd Annual Grammy Awards.

TAMPA, FL - JANUARY 27:  Whitney Houston sings the National Anthem during the pregame show at Super Bowl XXV while tens of thousands of football fans wave tiny American flags in an incredible outburst of patriotism during the Persian Gulf War on 01/27/1991.  (Photo by Michael Zagaris/Getty Images)

Michael Zagaris/Getty Images

“The Star Spangled Banner” sung by Whitney Houston (1991)

The US commenced Operation Desert Storm just 10 days before Whitney Houston strode onto the field at Tampa Stadium to open Super Bowel XXV with the National Anthem. Fears that Saddam Hussein would attack this, the most American of all sporting events, meant that security was at an all-time high. Black Hawk helicopters occupied the Goodyear blimp’s usual place in the sky above the arena, and SWAT teams lay in wait on the roof. “It was an intense time for a country,” Houston remembered in 2000. “A lot of our daughters and sons were overseas fighting. In the stadium, I could see the fear, the hope, the intensity, the prayers going up. And I just felt, ‘This is the moment.’” She took her place at the 50-yard line and gave what many consider to be the performance of her career.

Or did she? In later years, it became public knowledge that the NFL demands what they call a “protection copy,” or pre-recorded version, to guard against illness, weather, and other potential calamities that can occur on the big day. Houston had taped her version, backed by the Florida Orchestra, in just a single take two weeks prior to the Super Bowl. That’s what an estimated 115 million heard on television, while a handful of servicemen and women present on the field listened to Houston pouring her soul into a dead microphone. “It was a time when Americans needed to believe in our country,” she reflected in an interview with People magazine shortly after the event. “I remember standing there and looking at all those people, and it was like I could see in their faces the hopes and prayers and fears of the entire country.”

Due to an overwhelming public response, Arista Records released Houston’s rendition of “The Star Spangled Banner” several weeks later on February 12, 1991. It became the label’s fastest selling single up to that point, reaching number 20 on Billboard. The proceeds from the song — some $531,650 — were donated to the American Red Cross Gulf Crisis Fund to provide aid and financial assistance to US soldiers and their families. The single was issued a second time a decade later following the September 11th attacks, with the revenue sent to the New York Firefighters 9/11 Disaster Relief Fund and the New York Fraternal Order of Police.


Part of a group of over 100 celebrities sing during a playback of their recorded song "Voices That Care" at Warner Brothers Studios in Burbank, California on . Included is in front from left, Richard Gere, James Woods, Paul Williams, Michelle Pfeiffer, Jane Seymour and Fred Savage. In the second row is Kevin Costner, Stephen Stills, Peter Cetera, Meryl Streep, Dudley Moore, Julie Brown, Gary Busey and Linda Thompson Jenner. In back is Orel Hersheiser, Henry Winkler, Nell Carter, Chevy Chase, Brooke Shields, Tiffany and David CassidyGulf War 1991 U.S. People Reaction, Burbank, USA

Part of a group of over 100 celebrities sing during a playback of their recorded song "Voices That Care" at Warner Brothers Studios in Burbank, California on . Included is in front from left, Richard Gere, James Woods, Paul Williams, Michelle Pfeiffer, Jane Seymour and Fred Savage. In the second row is Kevin Costner, Stephen Stills, Peter Cetera, Meryl Streep, Dudley Moore, Julie Brown, Gary Busey and Linda Thompson Jenner. In back is Orel Hersheiser, Henry Winkler, Nell Carter, Chevy Chase, Brooke Shields, Tiffany and David Cassidy Gulf War 1991 U.S. People Reaction, Burbank, US

Mark J. Terril/AP/REX Shutterstock

“Voices That Care” by Voices That Care (1991)

As the Gulf War raged, David Foster and then-wife Linda Thompson sought to write a song that would boost the morale of deployed troops. Together with former Chicago front man Peter Cetera, they crafted what they hoped would be a sort of “We Are the World” 2.0. Instead, “Voices That Care” remains one of the more unusual musical curios of the decade. The vocal lineup reads like a fever dream of early Nineties pop culture, setting soft rockers like Michael Bolton, Celine Dion and Amy Grant alongside actual rocker Jani Lane, country stars Garth Brooks and Randy Travis, plus Bobby Brown and Will Smith. For extra firepower on the “Stand tall! Stand proud! / Voices that care are crying out loud” refrain, they boasted a choir more than 70 strong, containing not only singers but actors (Ted Danson, Richard Gere, Brooke Shields, Jean-Claude Van Damme and Dudley Moore, for a start), comedians (Billy Crystal, Jon Lovitz, Whoopi Goldberg), athletes (Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, Wayne Gretzky), and others who apparently had an open date on their calendar. Unfortunately for this well-meaning group of celebs — but fortunately in the broader sense — the active Gulf War conflict had ceased by the time the song was released that March.

OAKLAND, UNITED STATES - APRIL 17: Bono of U2 performing at the Oakland Coliseum on April 17, 1992. (Photo by Clayton Call/Redferns)

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“One” by U2 (1992)

Contrary to its message of solidarity, the Achtung Baby standout was inspired in part by discordant relations within the band. The decision to record at Hansa Studios in a newly reunified Berlin exacerbated disagreements over U2’s sonic direction, with Adam Clayton and Larry Mullen, Jr. opting for their traditional rock approach, while Bono and the Edge favored industrial sounds and early electro dance records then en vogue on the continent. The band found themselves at a creative stalemate, and Mullen later admitted he “thought this might be the end” of U2. But as they jammed on an early version of “Mysterious Ways,” a distinctive riff fell out of the Edge’s guitar. “Suddenly something very powerful [was] happening in the room,” he recalled in the 2011 documentary From the Sky Down. “Everyone recognized it was a special piece. It was like we’d caught a glimpse of what the song could be.” Within 15 minutes, the refocused group had the musical structure complete. “It was a pivotal song in the recording of the album, the first breakthrough in what was an extremely difficult set of sessions,” Edge told Q in 2005.

The lyrics have been interpreted in a variety of ways since the song’s release in 1992. Some viewed the song as deeply autobiographical, chronicling the band’s attempt to reestablish their musical connection after being artistically at odds. Others felt it was more of a socio-political comment on a post-Wall Berlin. However, Bono himself offered a more nuanced take while speaking to Rolling Stone in 2005. “It’s a father-and-son story. I tried to write about someone I knew who was coming out and was afraid to tell his father. It’s a religious father and son… I have a lot of gay friends, and I’ve seen them screwed up from unloving family situations, which just are completely anti-Christian. If we know anything about God, it’s that God is love. That’s part of the song. And then it’s also about people struggling to be together, and how difficult it is to stay together in this world, whether you’re in a band or a relationship.”

The song’s lyrical genesis likely contributed to the band’s decision to issue the song as a benefit single in February 1992, with royalties donated to global AIDS charities. “The band feels that it is the most pressing issue of the day, and we really have to focus people’s attention to the AIDS plague that has been with us for 10 years,” U2’s manager Paul McGuinness said in a statement at the time. For the single’s cover art, the band chose a photograph by David Wojnarowicz, a New York artist and activist who would die that July of an AIDS-related illness.


Michael Jackson Michael Jackson Waves from a cargo plane at New York's Kennedy International Airport, during sendoff ceremonies for 93, 700 pounds of relief supplies destined for strife-torn Sarajevo. The airlift is underwritten by AmeriCares and Jackson's Heal the World Foundation. With the entertainer are Peter Nthenge, 12, left, and Sophie-Anne Hy, 11Michael Jackson, New York, USA

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“Heal the World” by Michael Jackson (1992)

Speaking to fans during an Internet chat session in 2001, the King of Pop cited this Dangerous cut as the song he was most proud to have created. Penned in his “Giving Tree,” a favorite songwriting spot at the Neverland Ranch, the simple melody and even simpler utopian message of “Heal the World” showcased Michael Jackson’s wish for humanity, and also provided a poignant glimpse of his own psychic scars from his (well-documented) tumultuous upbringing. Following Jackson’s earlier socially conscious work like “We Are the World,” “Man in the Mirror” and “Black or White,” “Heal the World” was more explicit in its humanitarian goals — with a video that eschewed his own superstar visage for footage of orphans in war-torn Burundi. It would also provide a name for his charitable organization, through which he strove to put the lyrics’ altruistic message into practice. Founded in the wake of the song’s release in 1992 with the aim “to improve the conditions for children throughout the world,” the Heal the World Foundation drew millions from Jackson’s Dangerous tour proceeds and Super Bowl XXVII half time show performance fees — plus smaller donations from fans.