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100 Greatest Beatles Songs

From ‘Helter Skelter’ to ‘Sgt. Pepper’s,’ ranking of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, George Harrison’s output

100, Greatest, Beatles, Songs

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By Elvis Costello

I first heard of the Beatles when I was nine years old. I spent most of my holidays on Merseyside then, and a local girl gave me a bad publicity shot of them with their names scrawled on the back.

This was 1962 or ’63, before they came to America. The photo was badly lit, and they didn’t quite have their look down; Ringo had his hair slightly swept back, as if he wasn’t quite sold on the Beatles haircut yet.

I didn’t care about that; they were the band for me. The funny thing is that parents and all their friends from Liverpool were also curious and proud about this local group. Prior to that, the people in show business from the north of England had all been comedians. The Beatles even recorded for Parlophone, which was a comedy label, as if they believed they might be a passing novelty act.

I was exactly the right age to be hit by them full-on. My experience — seizing on every picture, saving money for singles and EPs, catching them on a local news show — was repeated over and over again around the world. It wasn’t the first time anything like this had happened, but the Beatles achieved a level of fame and recognition known previously only to Charlie Chaplin, Brigitte Bardot and Elvis Presley, along with a little of the airless exclusivity of astronauts, former presidents and other heavyweight champions.

Every record was a shock. Compared to rabid R&B evangelists like the Rolling Stones, the Beatles arrived sounding like nothing else. They had already absorbed Buddy Holly, the Everly Brothers and Chuck Berry, but they were also writing their own songs. They made writing your own material expected, rather than exceptional.

And John Lennon and Paul McCartney were exceptional songwriters; McCartney was, and is, a truly virtuoso musician; George Harrison wasn’t the kind of guitar player who tore off wild, unpredictable solos, but you can sing the melodies of nearly all of his breaks. Most important, they always fit right into the arrangement. Ringo Starr played the drums with an incredibly unique feel that nobody can really copy, although many fine drummers have tried and failed. Most of all, John and Paul were fantastic singers.

Lennon, McCartney and Harrison had stunningly high standards as writers. Imagine releasing a song like “Ask Me Why” or “Things We Said Today” as a B side. They made such fantastic records as “Paperback Writer” b/w “Rain” or “Penny Lane” b/w “Strawberry Fields Forever” and only put them out as singles. These records were events, and not just advance notice of an album. Then they started to really grow up: simple love lyrics to adult stories like “Norwegian Wood,” which spoke of the sour side of love, and on to bigger ideas than you would expect to find in catchy pop lyrics.

They were the first group to mess with the aural perspective of their recordings and have it be more than just a gimmick. Engineers like Geoff Emerick invented techniques that we now take for granted, in response to the group’s imagination. Before the Beatles, you had guys in lab coats doing recording experiments, but you didn’t have rockers deliberately putting things out of balance, like a quiet vocal in front of a loud track on “Strawberry Fields Forever.” You can’t exaggerate the license that this gave to everyone from Motown to Jimi Hendrix.

My absolute favorite albums are Rubber Soul and Revolver. On both records you can hear references to other music — R&B, Dylan, psychedelia — but it’s not done in a way that is obvious or dates the records. When you picked up Revolver, you knew it was something different. Heck, they are wearing sunglasses indoors in the picture on the back of the cover and not even looking at the camera . . . and the music was so strange and yet so vivid. If I had to pick a favorite song from those albums, it would be “And Your Bird Can Sing” . . . no, “Girl” . . . no, “For No One” . . . and so on, and so on. . . .

Their breakup album, Let It Be, contains songs both gorgeous and jagged. I suppose ambition and human frailty creeps into every group, but they delivered some incredible performances. I remember going to Leicester Square and seeing the film of Let It Be in 1970. I left with a melancholy feeling.

Someone recently gave me an assembly of newsreel footage, which illustrates how swiftly the band was drained of the bright and joyful wit presented as a public face.

In one early sequence, McCartney tells reporters that they will soon appear on The Ed Sullivan Show and then points into the camera: “There he is, hi, Ed, and Mrs. Ed” — “and Mr. Ed,” chimes Ringo. It might have been practiced, but it plays entirely off-the-cuff.

Just a year later, they are seen at a press conference in Los Angeles for their final tour. Suits and ties are a thing of the past. Staring down a series of dismal attempts at provocation from the press corps, they look exhausted and disenchanted.

When probed by one blowhard to respond to a Time magazine critique that “Day Tripper” was about a prostitute and “Norwegian Wood” about a lesbian, McCartney responds, “We were just trying to write songs about prostitutes and lesbians.” In the laughter that follows, he mutters, “Cut.” They were giving the impression that the game was up, but in truth, they were just getting started.

The word “Beatlesque” has been in the dictionary for quite a while now. You hear them in Harry Nilsson’s melodies; in Prince’s Around the World in a Day; in the hits of ELO and Crowded House and in Ron Sexsmith’s ballads. You can hear that Kurt Cobain listened to the Beatles and mixed their ideas with punk and metal. They can be heard in all sorts of one-off wonders from the Knickerbockers’ “Lies” and the Flamin’ Groovies’ “Shake Some Action.” The scope and license of the White Album has permitted everyone from OutKast to Radiohead to Green Day to Joanna Newsom to roll their picture out on a broader, bolder canvas.

Now, I’ll admit that I’ve stolen my share of Beatles licks, but around the turn of the Nineties, I got to co-write 12 songs with Paul McCartney and even dared to propose that he too reference some of the Beatles’ harmonic signatures — as, astonishingly, he had made up another musical vocabulary for Wings and during his solo career.

In 1999, a little time after Linda McCartney’s passing, Paul performed at the Concert for Linda, organized by Chrissie Hynde. During the rehearsal, I was singing harmony on a Ricky Nelson song with him, and Paul called out the next tune: “All My Loving.”

I said, “Do you want me to take the harmony line the second time round?” And he said, “Yeah, give it a try.” I’d only had 35 years to learn the part. There was inevitably a poignant feeling to this song, written long before he had even met Linda:

Close your eyes and I’ll kiss you
Tomorrow I’ll miss you
Remember I’ll always be true.

At the show, it was very different. The second Paul sang the opening lines, the crowd’s reaction was so intense that it all but drowned the song out. It was very thrilling, but also disconcerting.

Perhaps I understood in that moment one of the reasons why the Beatles had to stop performing. The songs weren’t theirs anymore. They belonged to everybody.

This is an updated version of an essay that appeared in RS 946.

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‘Hello, Goodbye’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: October 2, 19, 25 and November 2, 1967
Released: November 27, 1967
11 weeks; No. 1

McCartney never claimed that the irresistibly bounce "Hello, Goodbye" was his most profound songwriting moment. "It's just a song of duality, with me advocating the more positive," he said. Brian Epstein's assistant Alistair Taylor remembered McCartney getting the idea while demonstrating how to write a song: "He had a marvelous old hand-carved harmonium. [He told me to] hit any note on the keyboard . . . and I'll do the same. Whenever I shout out a word, you shout the opposite, and I'll make up a tune. 'Black,' he started. 'White,' I replied. 'Yes.' 'No.' 'Hello.' 'Goodbye.'" Although the song would be Number One for three weeks in the U.S. and for seven weeks in the U.K., Lennon was not impressed. "['I Am the Walrus'] was the B side to 'Hello, Goodbye,'" he said incredulously. "Can you believe it?"

Appears On: Magical Mystery Tour

Photos: Rolling Stone Readers Pick the Top 10 Beatles Albums
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the beatles 100 greatest songs

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‘Yes It Is’

Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: February 16, 1965
Released: April 19, 1965
4 weeks; No. 46 (B side)

As he was with much of his early work, Lennon was dismissive of "Yes It Is"; he said it was "me trying a rewrite of 'This Boy,' but it didn't work." But "Yes It Is" features some of the most intricate vocals of any Beatles song; like "This Boy," it was an attempt to mimic the three-part harmonies of Smokey Robinson and the Miracles. It took Lennon, McCartney and Harrison multiple takes to nail the song's delicate mix of voices.

In the lyrics, Lennon showed the honesty that would mark his songwriting after 1965: His "pride" is the reason he can let go of a lost love. McCartney liked "Yes It Is": "[It's] a very fine song of John's, a ballad, unusual for him," he said. "I was there writing it with John, but it was his inspiration." Harrison used an early effects pedal to add gentle sobs of pedal-steel-like guitar, giving it a subtle Nashville spin.

Appears On: Past Masters

The 100 Greatest Artists of All Time: The Beatles
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‘Long, Long, Long’

Writer: Harrison
Recorded: October 7-9, 1968
Released: November 25, 1968
Not released as a single

"Long, Long, Long" seems like a love song — "How I want you/How I love you/You know that I need you" — but the object of Harrison's affections was God. "I believe in the saying 'If there's a God, we must see him,'" Harrison said in 1969. He based the song on Bob Dylan's "Sad-Eyed Lady of the Lowlands" — "those three chords and the way they moved." Though Lennon was blatantly enamored of Dylan early on, Harrison was the true Dylanphile. ("George quoted Bob like people quote Scripture," Tom Petty told Rolling Stone.) Soon after the White Album came out, Harrison was in Woodstock, New York, spending Thanksgiving with Dylan and the Band. He and Dylan wrote "I'd Have You Anytime," which became the first track on All Things Must Pass and the first step toward a lasting friendship.

Appears On: The Beatles

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‘All I’ve Got to Do’

Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: September 11, 1963
Released: January 20, 1964
Not released as a single

"Smokey Robinson was like God in our eyes," McCartney once said. And nowhere was Robinson's divine presence more felt than on With the Beatles. The album features the band's cover of "You Really Got a Hold on Me," as well as Lennon's "Not a Second Time" and "All I've Got to Do," which Lennon described as "me trying to do Smokey Robinson." "All I've Got to Do" is one of the most soulful songs of the early Beatles originals: With its plaintive vocal, it recalls the Miracles' "(You Can) Depend on Me," especially when Lennon's voice soars through the bridge. Robinson cast a wide shadow on the Beatles long after they split: In the Seventies, Harrison wrote a tribute called "Pure Smokey," and Lennon admitted that he was still trying to sing like Robinson during the Double Fantasy sessions.

Appears On: With the Beatles

The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time: 'With the Beatles'
Photos: The World Remembers John Lennon
Photos: Rare Beatles Pictures

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‘Within You Without You’

Main Writer: Harrison
Recorded: March 15 and 22, April 3 and 4, 1967
Released: June 2, 1967
Not released as a single

Harrison had been obsessed with the sitar since he saw one on the set of Help! in 1965. But it wasn't until he went to India in 1966 to study with sitar master Ravi Shankar that he became truly skilled at it. Harrison often practiced eight hours a day while in India. "George's passion for the music amazed me," Shankar said.

"Within You Without You" was the first fruit of Harrison's studies. Augmenting his sitar with an 11-piece string section and Indian instrumentation, it was a magnetic sermon on spirituality. "It's one of my favorite [songs] of his," Lennon said. "His mind and music are clear. . . . He brought that sound together."

Harrison's devotion to the sound and spirit of India lingered, blooming over his solo masterwork, All Things Must Pass. "Till the day I die," Harrison told Rolling Stone in 1968, "I believe [Indian music] is the greatest music ever on our level of existence."

Appears On: Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band

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‘Any Time at All’

Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: June 2, 1964
Released: July 20, 1964
Not released as a single

"Any Time at All" shows how much the Beatles learned from their hero Buddy Holly. The song has all the Holly trademarks — the jangling guitars, the openhearted generosity of the lyric, the urgent emotion in the voices. It's a pledge of 24-hour devotion to a girl, with Lennon speaking his mind in a brash way ("Call me tonight, and I'll come to you") that would have made Holly proud — even though Lennon himself wasn't thrilled with the results. (He dismissed the song as my "effort at [re]writing 'It Won't Be Long.'")

If the Beatles play the song like they're in a hurry, it's because they were — this was recorded on the last day of the sessions for A Hard Day's Night, before they departed for a monthlong tour. (Unfortunately, the morning after they cut "Any Time at All," Ringo collapsed with tonsillitis and pharyngitis, so they went to Denmark with a replacement drummer.) "Any Time at All" reprises a George Martin trick from "A Hard Day's Night" by using a piano solo echoed lightly note-for-note on guitar by Harrison. Never a hit, "Any Time" became a fan favorite.

Appears On: A Hard Day's Night

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‘You Won’t See Me’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: November 11, 1965
Released: December 6, 1965
Not released as a single

On the night of November 11th, 1965, the Beatles were in a bind. The deadline for completing Rubber Soul was upon them, and they needed to record three songs that evening to wrap up the album. On top of that, McCartney was having problems with his girlfriend, Jane Asher: He was upset that the actress had moved to Bristol to join the Old Vic theater company. Out of McCartney's anger came "You Won't See Me," which finds him spitting out, albeit in his nice-guy way, some of his most bitter lyrics: "Time after time, you refuse to even listen/I wouldn't mind if I knew what I was missing," he grouses. As cranky as the lyrics are, the music behind them is positively bouncy, buoyed by Starr's inventive drumming and a melody and bass line that are an obvious homage to Four Tops singles such as "I Can't Help Myself." "To me, it was very Motown-flavored," said McCartney later. "It's got a James Jamerson feel." The Beatles were in such a rush to get the song over with that they cut it in only two takes.

Appears On: Rubber Soul

The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time: 'Rubber Soul'
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‘Sexy Sadie’

Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: July 19 and 24, August 13 and 21, 1968
Released: November 25, 1968
Not released as a single

Lennon left India abruptly after hearing stories about the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's sexual impropriety with female students. While he and Harrison were waiting for a ride out of Rishikesh, Lennon composed this biting denunciation of his guru. He later told Rolling Stone that when the Maharishi asked why the pair were leaving, he replied, "Well, if you're so cosmic, you'll know why."

The initial version of "Maharishi," as the song was originally called, was even nastier ("You little twat/Who the fuck do you think you are?"); at Harrison's suggestion, Lennon changed the title to "Sexy Sadie." The other Beatles were nowhere near as vehement about repudiating the Maharishi. "It's really funny, John's reaction to this sexual thing," McCartney said. "It seemed a little prudish to me." Harrison, who swore the gossip about the Maharishi's sexual misconduct was not true, was even more sanguine: "There were a lot of flakes [in Rishikesh]. Some of them were us."

Appears On: The Beatles

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‘Dig a Pony’

Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: January 22, 24, 28 and 30, February 5, 1969
Released: May 18, 1970
Not released as a single

This witty jumble of words was recorded at the Beatles' rooftop performance, with an assistant holding up Lennon's lyrics for him as a cue. "I roll a stoney/Well, you can imitate everyone you know," Lennon sings. It might simply be an agreeable bit of nonsense (in 1980, Lennon dismissed "Dig a Pony" as "another piece of garbage"), or it might be a dart hurled at the Beatles' chief rivals in English rock & roll, the Rolling Stones. Lennon and McCartney wrote the Stones' second single, 1964's "I Wanna Be Your Man" (Lennon later wryly noted, "We weren't going to give them anything great"), and Keith Richards had played with Lennon on the Stones' Rock and Roll Circus in late 1968. But in an interview with Rolling Stone in 1970, Lennon's resentment spilled out: "I would like to just list what we did and what the Stones did two months after on every fuckin' album. Every fuckin' thing we did, Mick does exactly the same. They are not in the same class, musicwise or powerwise — never were."

Appears On: Let It Be

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‘Every Little Thing’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: September 29 and 30, 1964
Released: June 14, 1965
Not released as a single

The fond but self-centered lyrics of "Every Little Thing" celebrate the affections of McCartney's girlfriend, Jane Asher, alternating between vows of love and bragging about "the things she does." McCartney wrote the song while staying with Asher and her family in London; he and Lennon added finishing touches on tour in Atlantic City. McCartney said later that he thought "Every Little Thing" was "very catchy" but not what he hoped it would be. "Like most of the stuff I did, it was my attempt at the next single," McCartney said. "But it became an album filler."

Recording involved nine takes over the course of two days, including one outtake that dissolved into laughter. The finished track — a heartfelt, midtempo song, with a gorgeous melodic leap in the chorus — pulls switcheroos on a couple of the usual early Beatles routines. The main writer isn't the lead singer; Lennon's voice dominates. And Starr reached beyond his drum kit to play the booming timpani that jumps out midchorus.

Appears On: Beatles for Sale

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‘The Long and Winding Road’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: January 26 and 31, 1969; April 1, 1970
Released: May 11, 1970
10 weeks; No. 1

McCartney wrote "The Long and Winding Road" as he watched the Beatles begin to spin out of control. In early 1969, creative and financial issues were fracturing the band. Lennon had already told the others that he was quitting, Starr had gone on a hiatus, and Harrison and McCartney disappeared for weeks. "It's a sad song, because it's all about the unattainable," McCartney said. "I was a bit flipped out and tripped out at the time."

Months after recording the poignant piano ballad, McCartney got a rude surprise: Producer Phil Spector, who had been given the tapes by Lennon, had reworked his take, adding a layer of strings and a choir. "It was an insult to Paul," engineer Geoff Emerick recalled. "It was his record. And someone takes it out of the can and starts to overdub things without his permission." Soon after, the acrimony became too much: In April 1970, McCartney released his first solo album and issued a statement announcing the end of the Beatles.

Appears On: Let It Be

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‘Good Day Sunshine’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: June 8 and 9, 1966
Released: August 8, 1966
Not released as a single

"Good Day Sunshine" was McCartney's attempt, one hot summer afternoon, to write a song in the vein of the Lovin' Spoonful's idyllic, old-fashioned "Daydream." "That was our favorite record of theirs," McCartney said.

The song benefits from one of George Martin's ingenious studio devices: recording specific parts at different tape speeds. Though McCartney handles the piano chords on "Good Day Sunshine," Martin — an accomplished keyboardist who contributed to a number of Beatle recordings — is responsible for the slowed-down honky-tonk piano solo that follows the abbreviated second verse.

The result is a peppy break that sounds organic even though it's the product of tape-manipulation trickery. Martin's nuanced approach to recording technology — using it to serve the music, not as a gimmick — is arguably his biggest contribution to Revolver and everything that followed. "George Martin [was] quite experimental for who he was, a grown-up," said McCartney.

Appears On: Revolver

The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time: 'Revolver'
The Lost Beatles Photos: Rare Shots From 1964-1966
Paul McCartney on 'Beatles 1,' Losing Linda and Being in New York on September 11th

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Main Writer: Lennon
Recorded: April 14 and 16, 1966
Released: May 30, 1966
7 weeks; no. 23 (B side)

"Rain" is a Lennon song about nothing much — "People moaning because . . . they don't like the weather," he said. But the song, released months before Revolver as the B side to "Paperback Writer," was the Beatles' first public attempt to capture the LSD experience on record. They did it by infusing the track with tantalizing sounds — melting-chant harmonies, the brusque, leadlike flair of McCartney's bass, Starr's disorienting drum fills — and the promise of a realm beyond the usual senses. "I can show you," Lennon sings, "can you hear me?" — as if he's already got a head start. The most surreal effect was an accident: While stoned, Lennon threaded a rough mix the wrong way on his home tape recorder. He was thrilled with the backward vocals he heard — so thrilled he demanded the sound be used on the song's fade-out. "From that point on," engineer Geoff Emerick wrote, "almost every overdub we did on Revolver had to be tried backwards as well as forwards."

Appears On: Past Masters

The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: Beatles' "Rain"
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Photos: Rolling Stone Readers Pick the Top 10 Beatles Albums

the beatles 100 greatest songs

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‘Love Me Do’

Writers: McCartney-Lennon
Recorded: September 11, 1962
Released: April 27, 1964
14 weeks; No. 1

The Beatles' first single, "Love Me Do," was also one of the first songs Lennon and McCartney wrote together. They were just teenagers in 1958, scribbling songs in a school notebook, dreaming of stardom, always writing "Another Lennon-McCartney Original" at the top of the page. "Love Me Do" became their debut U.K. single in October 1962, with "P.S. I Love You" as the B side. It hit the charts and reached Number 17 — not bad for a band of scruffy Liverpool lads. But when released in the U.S. with Beatlemania in full effect, it hit Number One.

The Beatles first cut the song during their audition for George Martin, with drummer Pete Best. Martin made them redo it with replacement Ringo Starr and again with a hired session drummer, when Martin demoted Starr to tambourine. "He's never forgiven me for it," Martin said, laughing. "I do apologize to him publicly." But it was Martin's idea to have Lennon add a harmonica solo. As Mc­Cartney recalled, "John expected to be in jail one day and he'd be the guy who played the harmonica."

Appears On: Past Masters and Please Please Me

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‘Lady Madonna’

Main Writer: McCartney
Recorded: February 3 and 6, 1968
Released: March 18, 1968
11 weeks; No. 4

Like many of McCartney's finest songs, "Lady Madonna" is a tribute to working-class womanhood, expressed through Irish-Catholic imagery. "'Lady Madonna' started off as the Virgin Mary, then it was a working-class woman, of which obviously there's millions in Liverpool," he later said. "There are a lot of Catholics in Liverpool because of the Irish connection." The Madonna of the song is a long-suffering but indestructible matriarch, as tough as the title character of "Eleanor Rigby," yet as comforting as Mother Mary from "Let It Be."

Musically, "Lady Madonna" has an earthier inspiration: the New Orleans piano boogie of Fats Domino. McCartney called it "a Fats Domino impression," composed while trying to play something bluesy on the piano. The recorded version is a full-on tribute to the New Orleans R&B sound, with tootling saxophones. Domino must have taken it as a compliment. A few months after the song came out, he released his own cover version, which became the last Top 100 hit of his career.

Appears On: Past Masters