When Martina McBride’s “Independence Day” was released to country radio in April 1994, it was easy to mistake the country song for a U-S-A! U-S-A! anthem. It was titled after America’s most patriotic holiday after all, and its irresistible chorus of “Let freedom ring!” seemed custom-made for small-town Fourth of July celebrations to come. But the true meaning behind “Independence Day,” written by Gretchen Peters and recorded by powerhouse vocalist McBride, was lost on many listeners — the seemingly July 4th holiday hit turned out to be a story of domestic violence and one woman’s drastic measures to escape abuse at home.
“I started getting all these letters — handwritten letters, back in the day — from women saying, ‘This is my song,’” McBride says now. “I got a few letters that said, ’I heard this song on the radio, I’ve been battered for 10 years, and I left. This was the thing that made me realize that it’s not my fault, that I need to make a change.’”
Throughout the past 25 years, both McBride and Peters have watched as their song has taken on a life entirely of its own — not just in its cathartic impact for victims of abuse, but also in its misinterpretation for political means. Sean Hannity used the song as a theme on his radio show from shortly after 9/11 until 2014; Sarah Palin chose it as a walk-on song during her Vice Presidential campaign. Peters, in particular, has been saddled with a patriotic anthem she did not write.
“As the writer, I always believe that it’s very powerful to know what your story’s about and know your characters, but not necessarily put it all in there,” she says. “Because I think it invites the listener to play a part. The danger there is that those kinds of songs are much more easily misconstrued.”
Peters began writing “Independence Day” around 1992, her fifth year working in Nashville. Early into her career, she had been discovered and signed to Tree Publishing Company by Paul Worley, a session musician who had just begun to carve out a successful path as a producer. He had noticed the lack of women writers on Tree’s roster and signed Peters for her unique storytelling approach.
Peters had taken a somewhat meandering route to country music. Growing up in Westchester County, New York, with a journalist father who covered the Civil Rights movement, she was raised listening to Village folk music — Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, Leonard Cohen. Her parents divorced when she was eight, and by the time she was in her mid-teens Peters had moved with her mother to Boulder, Colorado. It was the mid-Seventies, and Peters got involved in the local music scene, playing in a few “hippie country-rock” bands and, in her spare time, sneaking off to a record store to purchase the latest Nashville records.
“It was not cool to be a country music fan at the time, at all,” she says, laughing. “I would go in there…it was kind of like going to see my dealer, you know? He’d slip me a few George Jones records and say, ‘Go listen to this, kid.’”
It was the storytelling that brought her to the genre — that particular country way of mixing precision of detail with profound sadness and melancholy. Years later, it clicked for Peters that songwriting itself could be a suitable profession. Nashville signees like Nancy Griffith and Steve Earle caught her attention — if these more “folksy” songwriters could make it in the country music biz, why couldn’t she? When she did finally make it out to Nashville, the first song she was paid for was called “Traveler’s Prayer,” performed by George Jones.
Peters took about a year and a half to write “Independence Day,” although, as Worley tells it, “it took Gretchen a year and a half to write any song.” She had the chorus, and she had the characters, and she had her point-of-view: “The little girl, the daughter, was the character that I identified with,” she says.
But the ending gave her trouble. To be clear, she had the ending written, but it made her worried.
“I was so afraid of the ending that I kept trying to figure out another way to end it,” she says. “I look back at that and the irony of that doesn’t escape me, because I feel like the woman in the song spent a long time looking for another ending.”
The dramatic conclusion — subconsciously on Peters’ part, she says — echoes the story of Francine Hughes, one of the first women to be found not guilty due to temporary insanity involving “battered-woman syndrome.” In 1977, after being repeatedly raped and beaten by her alcoholic husband, Hughes poured gasoline around their bed while he slept and set it on fire, escaping the burning home with her three children. The “day of reckoning,” as referenced in the song, is an act of retribution for abuse.
In “Independence Day,” the daughter discovers the fire when she returns from the Fourth of July parade, and is quickly whisked away “to the county home.” We never find out if the mother survived or not. It was that potent mixture of violence and ambiguity that made Peters, as a “relatively young and hungry” songwriter, nervous that no one would even want the song. But in the end, the desire to tell the truth, and not to project a false sense of hope, won over.
“The thing for me about writing stories and characters is that if you’re doing it right, the characters start to tell you what the song is about,” says Peters. “It’s not you manipulating the people like marionettes. It’s really much more about the characters telling you what’s true about themselves… And so it was just a matter of me sitting with that woman and that daughter long enough to realize that, yes, this is the way the story ends. And then to have the nerve to end it that way.”
In 1991, Tree Publishing was bought out by Sony Records, and Worley began producing for a then 25-year-old McBride, who had just been signed to Sony’s RCA Records. McBride recorded one Peters song, “When You Are Old,” for her debut album The Time Has Come in 1992. When it came time to record the follow-up, The Way That I Am, McBride chose to include Peters’ “My Baby Loves Me,” an up-tempo love song that would go on to become her first Top Five hit on the Billboard charts.
Peters had recorded demo versions of “Independence Day,” and when one of them ended up in Worley’s hands, he immediately wanted to show it to McBride.
“She heard the song and just fell in love with it,” he says. “We both did. We’d never heard a song like that.”
“What drew me to it was the brilliance of the lyrics,” says McBride. “If you write it down on paper, it’s like a work of literature, it’s like a poem.”
Having grown up in a small Kansas town, McBride remembers how domestic violence was “something that was never talked about” when she was a kid. Her own unawareness of the issue, rather than causing her to balk, made her that much more passionate about bringing the song’s message out into the world.
In later years, Worley would go on to discover and produce for country superstars like Lady Antebellum, Big & Rich, and the Dixie Chicks. (“Goodbye Earl” was his production, too.) For “Independence Day,” he wasn’t afforded the luxury of rehearsal time with session musicians that he was given for those later records. But he did play guitar for it, and by his account, the song was pretty much all recorded in one afternoon.
“Martina and I sat down together to do pre-production, and I came up with that guitar lick,” recalls Worley. “We figured out that was going to be our point of entry. And I had the band that we wanted booked, and it took off from there. That [song] is mostly a track, meaning a group of musicians in a studio all playing at the same time.” Major changes from the Peters demo included adding that propulsive guitar, speeding up the song’s tempo and gussying up the church bells in the iconic chorus. But what it really boiled down to, says Worley, were two goals: don’t lose Martina’s vocals, and don’t lose the story.
In April 1994, when RCA head Joe Galante approached McBride to release “Independence Day” as the third single from The Way That I Am, it came as a welcomed surprise. Dale Turner, the label’s VP of promotion at the time, said that RCA expected “a small pocket of resistance” from radio programmers. But fear over the song drawing ire for its subject matter wasn’t really present until seven weeks after its release, in June 1994, when Nicole Brown Simpson’s murder was plastered across the news.
“It was interesting because we received initial pushback on the song, and I was so confused by that,” says McBride. “I was like, ‘Why wouldn’t they play this song?; My record promotion people came to me and said, ‘It probably isn’t going to work, there’s a lot of radio stations that just aren’t going to play it.’”
Listener feedback, of course, played a huge factor in radio programmers’ scheduling; phone call surveys, particularly in major cities like Los Angeles or Dallas, helped determine whether a new song was connecting with a station’s market.
“Even at that point in time, in the early to mid-Nineties, there were a lot of stations that conducted callout research with the audience,” says Chris Huff, the current program director at KILT/Houston who acted as music director at KPLX (now The Wolf) in Dallas during the song’s run on the charts. “It was a random sample of listeners every week, getting their opinions on records, and basing music decisions on that research.”
With “Independence Day” only seven weeks on the chart and a music video already out, McBride convinced her promotional team to give her the numbers of stations who wouldn’t play the song, and she began conducting her own callout research, talking to music directors and “having open conversations” about their hesitation.
“They were like, ‘I don’t think this needs to be on my radio station. I don’t think people need to be hearing this,’” she recalls. “And I’m like, ‘Well, it’s on your news every hour. This is topical.’ And then I had one music director who said, ‘You know, if that [music] video is on, and my young daughter walks through the room, I have to have a discussion with her and explain it to her.’ And I thought to myself, ‘Well, maybe that’s not such a bad idea. What’s wrong with that?‘”
Accounts differ as to how much radio play “Independence Day” received, between when it was released in April of ‘94 and when it peaked in August of that year — at Number 12 on the Billboard U.S. Hot Country Songs, and Number 10 on Radio & Records’ country chart. Lon Helton, who managed the country chart at R&R for 26 years, confirms that there was never an outright “ban” on the song for its subject matter, nor a mass l