By 1989 Bruce Springsteen was getting creatively restless. He had been playing with The E Street Band for 17 years, and was beginning to feel creatively boxed in. On a 1988 Amnesty International tour with Sting he noticed how free the artist felt without The Police. The next year he phoned up every member of the E Street Band and told them it was over. He then released two albums on the same day (Human Touch and Lucky Town) that he cut with studio musicians. They were met with the worst reviews of his career. "I tried writing happy songs in the early Nineties," Springsteen said in his 1999 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction speech. "It didn't work; the public didn't like it." That same year he hit the road with the reunited E Street Band.